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America's indo-pacific strategy

2019-11-14 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- America's indo-pacific strategy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的印太战略。近年来,美国印太战略调整势头加快,“脱虚入实”的战略演进趋势日益明显。在战略框架的构建上,美国印太战略受到日本较大影响,即以自由、民主、基于规则、市场经济等价值观为宗旨,以经济、安全为两大支点,以高质量基础设施项目投资、海洋安全合作为两大核心领域。从当前目标来看,美国希望借助印太战略,加强与日澳等离心趋向明显的盟友关系,并借此深化与印度为首的伙伴关系国合作。而从长远目标来看,美国希望借印太战略,将美日印澳+重点伙伴关系国多边机制作为未来地区秩序的主导。

In recent years, the us indo-pacific strategy adjustment momentum accelerated, "from virtual to real" strategic evolution trend is increasingly obvious. In terms of the construction of the strategic framework, the indo-pacific strategy of the United States is greatly influenced by Japan, that is, it takes freedom, democracy, rule-based, market economy and other values as the purpose, economy and security as the two fulcrum, and high-quality infrastructure project investment and maritime security cooperation as the two core areas. From the perspective of current objectives, the United States hopes to use the indo-pacific strategy to strengthen alliances with Japan, Australia and other countries with obvious centrifugal tendency, and thereby deepen cooperation with partners led by India. And from the point of long-term goal, the United States wants to borrow too strategy, imprint the us-japan Australia + key partnerships of order in multilateral mechanism as the future of the country, and to hedge against China "area" initiative, human destiny community schemes such as the influence of compression China international activity space, achieve finally lag the strategic objective of China's rise.

In recent years, indo-pacific, as a geopolitical or geo-economic concept, has been frequently mentioned in the international community, and a new geopolitical plate derived from it -- indo-pacific region has become one of the regions with the most intense game among global powers and accelerated adjustment of international order. In response to this trend, many large or medium-sized Indian countries have adjusted the focus of their foreign strategy, put forward the indo-pacific strategy and gradually endowed it with substantive content. Among them, the us indo-pacific strategy is particularly noteworthy. Through sorting out the policy evolution of the indo-pacific strategy of the United States in recent years, it can be found that although it lacked substantial policy support at the initial stage, it gradually changed, and the strategic evolution trend of "withdrawing from the virtual to the real" became increasingly obvious. To sort out and analyze this process and analyze the influence of the indo-pacific strategy of the United States on the regional situation is conducive to China's more effective prediction of the strategic trend of the United States, Japan, India and Australia, and formulation of corresponding strategies, so as to maintain the security situation in China's neighborhood and jointly build a stable, harmonious, inclusive and open regional order with the international community.

Although trump put forward the indo-pacific strategy late, the concept of indo-pacific and its derived strategic connotation began to be valued by the world due to the huge international communication ability and influence of the United States. In fact, the us political and academic circles have long paid attention to the indo-pacific concept. The indo-pacific concept was first proposed by us secretary of state Hillary Clinton in a speech in Honolulu in October 2010. The following year, Hillary Clinton, published in the journal of foreign policy, "America's Pacific century", put forward "from the Indian subcontinent to the west coast of the United States across the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean vast areas are being shipping and strategy is becoming more and more closely together", "the United States is the alliance with Australia from Asia Pacific extended to India too, and become a truly global partnership", this paper expounds the U.S. officials for printing too seriously. After 2012, the United States began to intensively penetrate into the Indian Ocean region. The January 2012 issue of the U.S. national defense strategy guide pointed out that U.S. economic and security interests are closely linked to developments in the arc of land stretching from the western Pacific and east Asia to the Indian Ocean and South Asia, and that U.S. military power is bound to tilt toward this region. At the shangri-la dialogue held in Singapore in June 2012, Leon panetta, then us secretary of defense, expounded the strategic importance the us attaches to fast-growing emerging economies such as China, India and Indonesia, which was regarded as the beginning of the us "asia-pacific rebalancing" strategy. It is worth noting that in the traditional geopolitical context, India does not belong to the asia-pacific region. Therefore, at that time, the official statement of the United States outwardly pointed to the asia-pacific, but in fact had expanded its strategic vision to the indo-pacific. In July 2013, when the then us vice President Joe biden elaborated on the us asia-pacific policy, he said that his country regarded indo-pacific as a region and saw India's eastward strategic and diplomatic engagement as an integral part of the future of Asia. In addition to politics, the American academic circles also have a heated discussion about indo-pacific. Scott, kaplan, oslin and other famous American scholars have written articles on the connotation of the indo-pacific concept and its impact on the international pattern and regional security cooperation. Therefore, in fact, the us indo-pacific policy has already existed in the Obama era, but it has not attracted much attention in the world under the cloak of the "asia-pacific rebalancing" strategy.

In 2017, shortly after taking office, trump announced the abolition of the "asia-pacific rebalancing" strategy. However, due to the lack of foreign policy experience of the trump team, there was a vacuum in the United States' asia-pacific strategy at that time, which created objective conditions for trump's indo-pacific strategy. So why did trump's indo-pacific strategy come into being? The author believes that it is not only a kind of active action by stokes in the face of the evolution of the world pattern and the absence of the new asia-pacific strategy of the United States, but also the result of being "induced" by Japan and other Allies. First, from the perspective of the international situation, the power transfer process of major countries around the world has accelerated, China, India and other emerging powers have accelerated their rise, the strength of the United States and its Allies has declined, and the existing global and asia-pacific order has entered a period of transformation. Against this background, in order to slow down the rise of China and maintain the us-led international order, trump needs to strengthen the asia-pacific alliance system and at the same time attract India, Vietnam, Indonesia and other partners. India, in particular, is seen by the trump administration as a key factor in building the indo-pacific strategy and containment of China. Therefore, in essence, trump's basic conception of the indo-pacific strategy is still a "copy" of Obama's asia-pacific rebalancing strategy, with obvious inherited characteristics.

Second, in addition to the assessment of the international situation by trump and other senior members of the us administration, Japan, as the most important ally of the us, also played an important role in selling and lobbying. Abe is one of the leaders who planned the indo-pacific strategy early and implemented it most actively. Since his first cabinet formation in 2006, Abe has been incubating the idea of indo-pacific. In 2016, he formally put forward the indo-pacific strategy, which can be described as "a sword that has been sharpened for ten years". During the Obama administration, as the "asia-pacific rebalancing" had occupied the strategic focus of the United States for a long time, it was difficult for Abe at that time to promote his indo-pacific strategy. He adopted a "dual-track" policy that cooperated with the United States on the surface to implement the "asia-pacific rebalancing", but in fact kept implementing the foundation of the indo-pacific strategy. Although trump's taking office has brought a great impact on japan-us relations, Abe and other senior Japanese leaders hope to "turn the crisis into an opportunity" and see the hope of "joining Latin America" and restarting the security cooperation mechanism between Japan, Japan, India and Australia. So, on the one hand, shotaro tanuchi, Abe's diplomatic brain trust, instructed Japanese foreign ministry and national security officials to pass on Japanese ideas and plans to their American counterparts for consultations. On the other hand, Abe and his cabinet members will also actively lobby the United States, especially trump, on different diplomatic occasions. For example, during Abe's visit to the United States in February 2017, Abe vigorously sold the indo-pacific strategy to trump, saying that it was a "One Belt And One Road" initiative to jointly deal with China. In the process of continuous high-level interaction between the two countries, trump and his diplomatic team gradually accepted the indo-pacific concept and planned to elevate it to a strategic level. According to the New York times, trump aides acknowledge that the U.S. indo-pacific strategy originated in Japan, which has been urging the U.S. to establish ties with "maritime democracies" such as Japan, Australia and India to jointly contain the rise of China. In addition, Japanese officials worked with Brian hooker, director of policy planning at the U.S. state department, and Matthew pottinger, senior director for east Asia at the U.S. national security council, to develop specific indo-pacific ideas. Therefore, trump's indo-pacific strategy is the result of a combination of internal and external factors. On the one hand, trump, who has just entered the international arena, is eager to "build from the old" and has an objective need for a new strategy. On the other hand, Japan was keenly aware that the United States was in a "strategic vacuum", so it continuously and actively lobbied for the emergence of the indo-pacific strategy from the outside.

After establishing the concept of accepting the indo-pacific, the top level of the United States also began to actively announce the idea of the indo-pacific. On October 18, 2017, then us secretary of state rex tillerson delivered an important speech at the center for strategic and international studies in the us, outlining the us vision and priorities for indo-pacific cooperation, which attracted high attention from the international community. On his overall vision for the indo-pacific, Mr Tillerson argued that "the growing convergence of interests and values between the us and India provides the best opportunity for the indo-pacific to defend a rules-based global system. But it also comes with a responsibility for both of us to 'do everything we can' to support our vision of an indo-pacific alliance of freedom, openness and prosperity." On the indo-pacific cooperation priority, tillerson insisted on the security and economic "two-wheel drive". On the security front, tillerson made it clear that he hopes to strengthen the security cooperation between the us, India and the us, Japan and India, and praised the recently concluded 2017 us-india Malabar exercise, saying that "the center of gravity of the world is shifting to the center of indo-pacific. The United States and India share a common goal of peace, security, freedom of navigation, and a free and open architecture that must serve as a beacon for the east and west of the indo-pacific. On the economic front, tillerson highlighted issues such as high-quality infrastructure investment in the indo-pacific region, saying, "we must also recognize that many indo-pacific countries have limited options for infrastructure investment projects and financing programs that often do not contribute to the jobs or prosperity they claim to help people. It is time to expand transparent, high-standard regional lending mechanisms -- tools that will actually help countries, rather than saddle them with mounting debt burdens." As can be seen from tillerson's important speech, the us indo-pacific strategy has maintained a high degree of consistency with Japan. In terms of overall institutional design, the us adheres to the "indo-pacific principle" of freedom, openness, prosperity and rules-based, which is exactly the same as the concept advocated by Abe. In the specific areas of cooperation, tillerson has made security and economy the two major centers, especially the emphasis on maritime security, which is actually trying to accommodate Japan's concerns. From the overall strategic direction, both the United States and Japan clearly embody the essential characteristics of encircling China in India and the Pacific, delaying China's peaceful rise and maintaining the existing international order.

Surprisingly, however, the honeymoon period in the us is short. On the face of it, the trump administration's acceptance of the indo-pacific strategy at the urging of Mr. Abe, and Mr. Tillerson's speech encouraged Allies represented by Japan, his trip to east Asia in November 2017 revealed sharp differences with Mr. Tillerson and Japan's indo-pacific agenda. During trump's visit to Japan, South Korea and other countries in November 2017, he did not put forward specific plans for indo-pacific strategy and only used the concept of "indo-pacific vision" during the whole visit, which disappointed the whole Japanese nation. In a subsequent speech at the APEC summit in da nang, Vietnam, trump made statements about the U.S. indo-pacific proposition, such as "we seek a strong trade relationship based on the principle of fairness and reciprocity," "we have lowered or terminated tariffs, lowered trade barriers, and allowed foreign goods to flow freely into our country. But while we have lowered market barriers, other countries have not opened their markets to us. We can no longer tolerate these long-standing trade abuses "and others more clearly demonstrate the true nature of its anti-multilateral trade mechanism in the name of indo-pacific strategy, ensuring that the interests of the United States are first, and practicing trade bullies. It can be said that, fundamentally speaking, trump's indo-pacific strategy was actually another carrier of "America first" and trade protectionism when it was born, and it deliberately downplayed the connotation of security cooperation. On the whole, trump's "indo-pacific strategy version 1.0" is just a reflection of his core policy policies such as America first and trade protectionism. It is fundamentally different from Japan's proposition that maritime security is at the core and military cooperation should contain China. As the American scholar cronin pointed out, "the core of trump's indo-pacific strategy is that countries with common values can benefit from each other in economic and security aspects, which is a long-term competitive strategy against China in the economic and trade field".

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