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Buchanan's public choice theory

2019-11-13 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Buchanan's public choice theory,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了布坎南公共选择理论。布坎南被称作“公共选择学派之父”,他提出的公共选择理论产生于20世纪 80年代。二战后,以布坎南为代表经济学家提倡新自由主义,高举政府失灵的旗帜,并旗帜鲜明反对国家过多干预经济。公共选择理论既是布坎南创造性的产物,也是在大量吸收了亚当斯密、威克塞尔、意大利财政学派等前人经济思想与理论的基础上提出的。布坎南在这些经济思潮的影响下,对政府公共行为的认识产生了根本性、颠覆性的改变,由一个支持者、倡导者转变成了一个反对者和批判者。

Public choice theory is one of the most influential theories in contemporary economics. Public choice theory has made many innovations in the methodology of economics, among which the most important one is to transplant the economic hypothesis of "rational economic man" into the research of sociology, political science, management and other fields, which has certain reference significance for the actual development of enterprises at present.

Buchanan is known as the "father of the public choice school". His theory of public choice came into being in the 1980s. After the World War II, the leading theory of western economics has been dominated by the economics that Keynes strengthened the macro-control of the government. The government is no longer a watchman, but an omnipotent and omnipotent "big machine". In this context, the governments of western developed countries changed from "small" to "big" and strengthened their macro-economic regulation and intervention. At the same time, government grew in size and functions, institutions became redundant, state intervention began to run into trouble, and the "visible hand" began to fail. During this period, economists represented by buchanan advocated neoliberalism, held high the banner of government failure, and clearly opposed excessive state intervention in the economy. Public choice theory is not only the creative product of buchanan, but also put forward on the basis of a large number of economic thoughts and theories of Adam Smith, wicker, Italian school of finance and other predecessors. The first is the liberal economic theory of Adam Smith, the originator of classical economics. Adam Smith was an advocate of free economic theory. He expected to establish a set of social and economic order spontaneously regulated by the market and opposed government intervention, which inspired the formation of buchanan's public choice theory to some extent. According to buchanan, the only definite principle of political economy is simple and free economic operation system, which is the sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of free economic society. The second is the economic theory of wixel, the main founder of the Swedish school. Wicker laid the foundation for the development of neoclassical economics, and formed the theoretical system based on marginal theory and general equilibrium, advocating free speech and equal distribution of economic wealth. Weixell theory was highly valued and recognized by buchanan and regarded as one of the most important sources of public choice theory. The third is the economic theory represented by the Italian school of public finance. The Italian school of public finance describes a model of how the state works. In the model, there are two groups: the ruling class and the ruled class. However, any public decision-making actions and behaviors of the ruling class group are based on the maximization of the interests of their own class and proceed from self-interest. Thus, the establishment chooses and implements the most easily passed and least resistant public policies. Under the influence of this economic trend of thought, buchanan's understanding of the public behavior of the government had a fundamental and subversive change, from a supporter and advocate to an opponent and critic.

There are three analysis methods of public choice theory: one is the analysis of transaction characteristics. This analysis, the basic proposition of economics and operation nature is different economic subject to trade and exchange, this way to trade also apply to the political activity area, between the clubs, parties, countries and interest groups, from its own interests in a series of trade and exchange, people tend to be more in the political activities of bargaining and compromise communication, this is a political game and exchange process. The second is individualistic analysis. This analysis suggests that. A group is composed of individuals. All the behaviors of a person will look for the reasons from their own interests, thus constituting collective decision-making behavior. Third, rational economic man hypothesis analysis. This analysis holds that everyone is a rational social person, and when faced with multiple choices or opportunities, everyone is always inclined to choose the opportunity that can bring the greatest benefits and strive to maximize their own benefits.

The most distinctive and obvious feature of public choice theory is that it fully applies the assumptions of rational "economists" into the analysis of political activities and political games, so that the decision-making behaviors of individuals and governments have a fulcrum for analysis.

Western economics shows that everyone is self-interested and wants to pursue the maximization of his own interests. When making various choices, human beings will always proceed from the way that is beneficial to themselves or their favorite way, which is the biggest motivation and desire of individuals. According to buchanan, cost and benefit are the most important things for human beings to consider when making decisions. Each person is always making a choice between weighing advantages and disadvantages, and is always concerned about what costs he has paid, what benefits and benefits he has obtained. If it is in line with his expectation, he will make the most advantageous choice. The same applies to voters and politicians. Voters tend to vote for politicians who bring him the best interests, and refuse to support officials who risk harming his own interests. In order to meet the needs of voters and meet the needs of public opinion, politicians will publish their policies based on the will of voters, no matter whether the policies are conducive to the realization of the overall situation and the overall interests. Therefore, buchanan believes that no matter who is, the nature of pursuing self-interest will not change. In this case, there will be a deviation between the idealized government action and the idealized will of voters. For example, voters may unilaterally believe that elected political leaders and officials represent the public interest and act to maximize it. In fact, a government composed of political bureaucrats does not necessarily govern according to the principle of the supremacy of public interest. Just like ordinary people, politicians can only choose from their own interests or from the interests of bureaucratic groups. As a result, government policies often fall far short of the voters' ideal. The so-called democratic political life in western countries has fully explained this truth. Buchanan believes that the contents of democracy, ownership and rights advocated by western developed countries do not necessarily conform to the expectations and interests of the public, but may have more negative effects.

Generally speaking, the behavior of western politicians is generally non-idealized, which may have negative effects on economic and social activities. For example, the government tends to strengthen the management and regulation of the market, so as to highlight the omnipotent power of the government. However, the actual situation is that excessive administrative intervention will lead to extreme low efficiency of resource allocation and information asymmetry, leading to rampant underground trading and market price distortion. The fundamental reason is that too much intervention will cause the lack of fair and effective competition. The government's responsibilities and powers are unclear, and it does not invest enough in areas that need to be managed, resulting in a shortage of supply. Too much control over where it should go leads to overproduction and waste of resources. So far, western people have not found a way to effectively supervise politicians and officials. In addition, most politicians are generally good at showing and hiding their preferences, and are good at making superficial statements, so that supervision can be effectively implemented. When western politicians advocate or introduce a policy or system, they will first consider what is best for their own interests, rather than how to advance the vital interests of the general public. Public policy, whether or not it has real benefits, is deemed most worthwhile as long as it benefits itself or the group. Therefore, the publicity effect of social public opinion formed by a certain system or policy may be far greater than the actual effect.

Through the analysis of the above problems, buchanan drew the inevitable conclusion of "government failure". According to buchanan, individuals are pursuers of utility maximization, and everyone is rational in economic behavior. Buchanan is not opposed to state intervention, he expected through public choice theory, let more people realize that government intervention is not is the key to solve all the problems of economy and society, improper intervention or excessive intervention will also cause a series of harm, the serious influence to the survival of democracy, the realization of affect the social and public interests. In fact, the school of public choice theory further inherits and develops the thoughts of classical economics, advocates a free market economy, and advocates that the market should play a leading role in the allocation of resources. All matters that should be decided by the market should be left to the market. Buchanan believes that at present, the problems of deficit finance and inflation in many western countries are related to excessive government intervention and unlimited expansion of government institutions. Keynesianism has completely liberated the visible hand of government.

It is an innovation of the thinking mode of the public choice theory school to transplant the hypothesis of "economic man" in the economic category into the study of the political field. For an enterprise, it is first of all a market subject pursuing profits. Only with a steady stream of profits and benefits can the sustainable development of the enterprise be guaranteed, social employment be solved, salary be raised, and economic, social and even political responsibilities be assumed by the state. Therefore, enterprises should establish the value concept of "maximization of interests" to pursue, consolidate the strategic development direction, adhere to the market-oriented, market needs, the enterprise will provide what, create what, and constantly meet the people's yearning for a better life material and spiritual needs.

The bureaucratic system theory and interest group theory mentioned in the public choice theory reveal that the existence of interest groups is inevitable and reasonable, which will affect the scientific nature and compliance of collective decision-making to some extent, thus harming the interests of most people. For enterprises, it is easy to form solidified interest groups in the long-term development process, thus affecting the efficiency and benefits of enterprises. Enterprises want to sustainable and healthy development, will dare to break the barriers, the interests of curing continues to deepen the reform of the "three system", adhere to the direction of marketization, specialization of labor, strengthen the evaluation of leading cadres and staff, play a good appraisal "baton" guiding role, realize the cadres can up to down, can pay high energy, low personnel can enter the, stimulate vitality and release staff development, adhere to the strong motivation, hard constraints, the employee's own interests and the interests of the enterprise together, to form a common interests and common destiny.

The rent-seeking theory and voting rules in the public choice theory analyze the game and decision of individual decision and group decision. For enterprises, strategy is an overall, long-term and fundamental problem of enterprise development. Company management objectives, the implementation of organizational goals, organizational operation institutionalization, business performance evaluation. Strategy determines the investment direction, investment projects, industrial planning and industrial development of enterprises. It is the first step of all actions, which is extremely important and crucial. Enterprises must stand in the country, standing in the industry, standing in the height of the industry, to the international leading enterprise group, analysis the current situation faced at home and abroad, the advantages and disadvantages of others and self, a clear and sorted out will be the direction and development stage, and based on the actual situation of the development of continuous rolling adjustment, to ensure that the strategic direction and development of the actual not excessive deviation, not excessive deviation, solve the problem of cannot effectively docking between good, really good strategy for enterprise development leading role into full play.

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