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British overseas bases

2019-03-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British overseas bases,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的海外基地。英国是世界上资本主义形成最早的国家之一,同时也是发展最迅速的国家。资本主义的发展需要广阔的市场和丰富的资源,而岛国地域狭小,资源贫乏,因此英国对外贸易的依存度远远超过其他欧洲大国。为了保证贸易,英国长期以来非常重视海军的发展和海外基地的建设。皇家海军和遍布世界的军事基地为巩固英国的海上霸权,为保护英国在海外的能源、资源和市场利益,发挥着巨大的作用。

overseas bases,英国海外基地,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea. Its superior geographical environment and powerful sea force make it rarely invaded by foreign civilization in the long history. Britain is one of the countries in the world with the earliest capitalist formation and the most rapid development. The development of capitalism requires a vast market and abundant resources, while island countries are small and resource-poor. Therefore, Britain's dependence on foreign trade far exceeds that of other European powers. In order to ensure trade, Britain has long attached great importance to the development of the navy and the construction of overseas bases. A steady stream of financial support enabled the royal navy to remain invincible for more than 300 years, defeating challenges from Spain, the Netherlands, France, Germany and Russia. The royal navy and military bases around the world played an important role in consolidating Britain's maritime hegemony, protecting its overseas energy, resources and market interests, and establishing its status as the "IF of the world" in modern times. The deployment and adjustment of overseas bases have also become a barometer of the rise and fall of Britain in the past 300 years. British overseas base construction and deployment can be roughly divided into three stages. Respectively is the expansion stage, the contraction stage, the decline stage.

The expansion period, roughly from the 18th century to the outbreak of world war ii. During this period, the British royal navy was constantly expanding and the number of bases was constantly increasing. The royal navy was founded in April 1664. Charles ii named Britain's naval power the royal navy. Until the end of the 15th century, Britain was on the edge of the world. The Mediterranean was then the center of world power. Britain's activities were limited to the north sea and focused on defending the English channel. In June 1509, when Henry VIII ascended the throne, England took its first steps towards the ocean. The king, known as the "father of the British navy", implemented a series of policies that contributed to the development of the Marine industry, which laid the foundation for Britain to go to the ocean in the future. Under the reign of Elizabeth I, the British royal navy under the command of Sir Francis drake, a pirate, defeated the invincible Spanish "Armada" and Britain became the world's maritime hegemony. From the 17th century to the 18th century, there were three anglo-dutch wars, which lasted for more than 20 years. As a result, the Netherlands, known as the "coachman on the sea", could no longer compete with Britain at sea. France, tsarist Russia and Germany also challenged British hegemony, but could not shake it in the end.

Overseas military bases are important support points for the navy, and they are also "bridgeheads" for colonial expansion and other maritime powers to compete for global hegemony. In 1704, Britain gained control of the strait of Gibraltar, which connected the Atlantic ocean with the Mediterranean Sea, opening the door to the center of world power. It was followed by the establishment of strongholds in Malta and Cyprus. In the 18th century, in order to compete with France, Britain established a foothold in Morocco and Tunisia near the strait of Gibraltar in north Africa. Through three anglo-dutch wars, Britain captured the Dutch colonies of Cape Town and Ceylon, and seized a series of islands of high strategic value, such as the helgolan islands in the north sea, Malta in the Mediterranean Sea, Trinidad in the Caribbean sea, seychelles in the Indian Ocean, Mauritius and Java. At the same time, Britain established a series of military bases on ascension island in the Atlantic ocean, st. Helena island, cape of good hope, and colonies in the Indian Ocean, such as India, Mauritius and Ceylon. By the time of the European revolution of 1848, Britain had developed a network of bases centered on the British mainland, with a total number of 130,000 military installations. The base network has three main lines, one extending south along both sides of the Atlantic ocean to the south, one extending east along the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean, and one extending from the western Pacific Ocean to the south Pacific Ocean. During this period, Britain established four fleets to defend colonies and overseas trade, respectively the straits fleet, the Mediterranean fleet, the Atlantic fleet and the far east fleet deployed in Asia with weihaiwei, Hong Kong and Singapore as the main bases. During the World War I, the British navy not only reached an unprecedented size of more than 400,000 people, but also annexed the defeated Germany's island colonies in Africa and the ocean, becoming an imperious "empire on which the sun never sets".

After the second industrial revolution, the United States and Germany rose to prominence, Britain also gave up the position of the world's largest economy, and faced great pressure from Germany militarily. But by the time of the outbreak of the World War II, Britain had thousands of overseas bases, still the largest in both number and size, and controlled important ports, sea routes and trade routes. Such as the South African South African simonstown, sierra leone Freetown; The eastern route includes Gibraltar, Malta, Cyprus, Egypt, Alexandria and suez, Aden, port Sudan, Mombasa, Kenya, Asuncion island in seychelles, Mauritius, Haifa in the Palestinian region, Ceylon, mumbai, India, myanmar, Singapore in the far east and Hong Kong, China.

This period roughly ran from World War II to the end of the cold war. In the World War II, Britain's military power was severely damaged and its colonial rule was greatly impacted. Military bases in southeast Asia and Singapore were all occupied by Japan. After the war, the awakening of colonial nations in Asia and Africa set off a wave of national liberation, which fundamentally shook the British colonial rule. In addition to its weak national strength and insufficient military expenditure, Britain was unable to maintain its huge base network and constantly adjusted its overseas bases.

After World War II, the independence of many colonies on the eastern front forced the withdrawal of British military bases from these countries and the withdrawal of British military bases to transport routes in some key areas. In the Mediterranean, Britain withdrew from Palestine in 1948 and from Egypt entirely after the second Middle East war in 1956, leaving only military installations in Gibraltar, Malta and Cyprus. In the Indian Ocean region, it withdrew from somalia in 1950, from myanmar in 1954, from Sudan in 1955, from transjordan in 1956, from Ceylon in 1957 and from Iraq in 1958. After world war ii, Britain restored its military bases in the far east in Malaysia and Singapore. Many bases in the western hemisphere were leased to the United States for 99 years under the famous destroyer base swap agreement. Such as the Caribbean islands of the Bahamas, antigua, Bermuda, Trinidad, Jamaica, st. Lucia and British Guiana and Georgetown. The "vacuum" created by Britain's withdrawal was quickly filled by America. In April 1946, the American battleship uss Missouri visited the Turkish port of Istanbul, marking the end of British dominance of Mediterranean affairs. In the Indian Ocean region, Britain allowed American ships to dock and use the port of bahrain in 1948, ushering in a new era of joint British and American use of overseas bases. After the war, Britain and the United States established a joint base on diego Garcia island in the British Indian Ocean territory of the chagos islands.

By the late 1970s, naval bases in the gulf of Aden, the Persian gulf region, were closed after Britain withdrew from yemen, Kuwait, bahrain, Qatar, Libya and other countries. Only two sovereign bases in Cyprus remain on the eastern front. 1960 Britain granted Cyprus independence but did not fully exercise sovereignty. According to the military bases agreement between the two countries: "British military aircraft have the right to fly unrestricted over the republic of Cyprus; The UK has full control over both the Akrotiri and zekellia military bases and their airspace. 1972 Britain closed military bases in Singapore and Malaysia. The withdrawal from Singapore was also a last resort for the British government. The Singapore base costs 70 million pounds a year. The far east fleet based in Singapore has an annual budget of 225 million pounds. Even without military action, it costs 220 million pounds a year. Britain's defence ministry has been criticised for its huge spending. By 1967, the British government had to accept the reality and withdraw from Singapore in order to save limited resources for domestic construction. Under Margaret thatcher, Britain made further adjustments to its overseas bases. After Belize and brunei gained independence in the 1980s, Britain maintained bases in both countries and maintained a military presence of 1,000 troops. After the falklands war, Britain maintained a military base in the malvinas islands and maintained a garrison of 1,500 troops. Meanwhile, Britain maintains bases in Gibraltar and Hong Kong, China, with 1,700 and 6,800 troops respectively.

After the cold war, the deployment of British overseas bases entered the third stage, and the scale of the bases was further reduced. With the disintegration of the Soviet union and the improvement of the security situation, Britain has carried out a large-scale disarmament, and its military expenditure has also been greatly reduced. Only eight remain: Canada, Belize, the malvinas, Germany, Gibraltar, Cyprus, brunei and Kenya. British troops in Germany are NATO troops; the troops in Canada are mainly engaged in military training. Britain withdrew its infantry battalion from Gibraltar in 1991. In 1994, Britain closed the military base in Belize, leaving only the jungle war training school. In 1997, Hong Kong returned to China and all the British troops left Hong Kong.

After the end of the cold war, the functions of British overseas bases have also changed quietly. They have shifted from simply protecting overseas interests and interfering in regional affairs to diversified directions such as peacekeeping, public diplomacy and humanitarian operations. Under the framework of the United Nations and NATO, Britain has sent military personnel to many countries, set up small bases, engaged in peacekeeping operations, military training and other operations, and demonstrated to the world the image of the British army as a "just force". Such as sending military personnel, peace-keeping and training de-miners to Kenya in East Africa.

After 2000, Britain's economic recession, coupled with the European debt crisis, brexit, the defense budget further reduced. Further adjustments will be made to Britain's overseas bases, leaving only Gibraltar, Cyprus, the falkland islands, brunei and some custodians as large overseas bases. At present, the base in Germany is Britain's largest overseas base, with a number of up to 20,000 people, under the command of NATO allied combat command. Britain plans to reorganise, shrink and eventually close all its military bases in Germany by 2020. Two sovereign bases in Cyprus could face the same fate as German bases. The Cypriot base, which had a population of 14,500 in 2008, was reduced to 2,880 by 2012, and the main task was to provide logistical support.

In the future, Britain will continue to conduct military training at military bases in Canada, Belize, brunei and Kenya. Britain has a temperate maritime climate, which makes it impossible to train in jungles, high cold and other climatic and topographic conditions. Since 1972, Britain has been conducting military training every year in the severe cold and freezing conditions at the safed base in alberta, Canada. Six British infantry battalions are sent to Kenya each year for six weeks of military training to familiarize themselves with the climate and topography of Africa. The tropical jungles of Belize and brunei provide excellent training grounds for the British. Britain has been training in Belize since 1994.

In 2014, Britain and bahrain announced they would spend 15 million pounds to build a military base in port sulman. It is also Britain's first overseas base in the Middle East since it withdrew from the east side of the Suez Canal in 1971.

Britain is prosperous because of the sea. From an island nation isolated from the European continent and far away from the center of world power, Britain has gradually become a maritime power and world hegemon. British navy and overseas bases have always played a huge role. The deployment and adjustment of overseas bases have also become an important symbol of Britain's rise and fall. For more than 300 years, overseas bases have been accompanied by the rise and fall of Britain, from more to less, from large to small, from boom to bust. Although Britain has become much weaker than before, its great power ambition has not changed. It is this ambition that has enabled the UK to maintain its overseas base in order to consolidate its great power status. The presence of overseas bases prevents Britain from following the mistakes of countries such as Spain. It can be predicted that the overseas bases of the UK will certainly exist for a long time, and will become the guarantee of the revival of the UK.

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