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American progressive movement

2019-03-13 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American progressive movement,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的进步主义运动。美国的进步主义运动是以追求社会正义为旗帜,由各界人士自发形成,自下而上的全国浪潮。关注的是经济现代化和政治民主化过程中的垄断和竞争,公正和效率,革新和稳定。特别是新闻领域的“黑幕揭发运动”曾经引起强烈反响,督促政府解决了相当一部分问题。

progressive movement,美国进步主义运动,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Historians generally refer to the political, economic and social reform movements that took place in the United States between 1880 and 1917 as the progressive movement. In nature, the progressive movement is a bourgeois reform movement with the main body of the middle class and the participation of all social classes. Its purpose is to eliminate various social disadvantages caused by the transition from "free" capitalism to monopoly capitalism in the United States and rebuild the social value system and economic order.

In the course of American social development, the civil war was obviously an important watershed, and its end provided an opportunity for American industrialization. Social change, bliss? Misfortune? "Fortune and misfortune depend on each other" -- once upon a time, this ancient Chinese philosophical proposition was proved in the distant North America. In the process of industrialization, the United States suffered from the so-called "industrial civilization syndrome" and suffered from a series of serious social problems, such as political corruption, moral anomie, the gap between the rich and the poor, violent labor conflicts and economic disorder. At the same time, the emergence of new industrial cities in the United States led to the predatory development and utilization of natural resources, resulting in a large number of forest and green land being swallowed up, and the city being surrounded by the black smoke and exhaust gas from factories.

Jacob rees, a prominent American muckraking journalist at the time, once reported on a violent case caused by poverty: a hungry and cold man wielding a butcher's knife in the streets of New York City, because he could no longer support his family and his young children were in hunger. Seeing the rich people dress up and spend money, this desperate father raised the blade of revenge to the society. The water in the Baltimore area smelled "like a hundred thousand skunks," the cuahoga river in Cleveland was "an open sewer running through the center of the city," and the sun over Pittsburgh "looked like copper through the black haze of soot."

In the production and sale of food and medicine, the production and sale of counterfeit goods are extremely rampant. Unclean food and harmful drugs seriously threaten people's health and life safety, while the public is kept in the dark. Food and drug companies' advertising campaigns are full of lies that allow the uninformed to take comfort in "delicacies" and "panaceas". The government's food inspectors have been bribed into turning a blind eye.

All of these show that the rapid expansion of the size of American cities and the increasing complexity of public affairs objectively require an efficient administrative agency to serve them. However, the old administrative agencies and management system have not been adjusted in time, resulting in opportunities for some politicians. Democracy they cronyism, trample, ACTS as the big capitalists, by selling all kinds of asylum, charter, project contract to earn a lot of political patronage and "protection", the illegal companies to evade tax, monopoly market, speculation in real estate, and even to open a brothel or casino, unruliness and at large.

Serious social problems have touched on the interests of various social classes, caused the general dissatisfaction of the lower and middle classes, and pushed the society to the whirlpool where all kinds of contradictions converge. At this point, the "progressives" were making the case for change.

The American progressive movement, with the pursuit of social justice as its banner, was spontaneously formed by people from all walks of life and was a national wave from bottom to top. The primary concerns are monopoly and competition, fairness and efficiency, innovation and stability in the process of economic modernization and political democratization. In particular, the "muckraking movement" in the news field once aroused strong repercussions and urged the government to solve a considerable part of the problems. In addition, the religious "social Gospel movement" and the female college graduates "social service movement" have played a significant role in strengthening neighbourhood cooperation, promoting class integration and harmonious social relations through the provision of living relief, cultural education and health services to the poor; They also offered Suggestions to the government on social reform, bridging the gap between the government and the underclass.

The second characteristic is the "caring principle". The main performance is to take care of the vulnerable groups in the society. On October 18, 1901, President Roosevelt took the risk of racial conflict and invited the famous black leader Booker t. Washington to the White House for dinner. His symbolic act of caring for the vulnerable social groups and a series of other administrative measures prompted the American government to gradually become fair and neutral in dealing with social frictions such as the confrontation between the rich and the poor, labor and capital, and black and white.

The third characteristic is the avant-garde role of intellectuals. Republican and democratic governments have sought to engage the intellectual elite. They know that intellectuals from the middle class want change, but they are also instinctively suspicious and resentful of radical movements among the people, preferring peaceful and gradual change. Many of these intellectuals actually took advantage of the protests by the people, hoping that the government would pay attention to their own opinions and take part in and play an important role in the government's reform. Most of the advocates of progressivism are accomplished scholars with unique insights, capable of writing and writing books for their reform cause, and able to win high academic status or social credibility. The aforementioned journalists tarbell and Sinclair, as well as Jane Adams, the female college graduate who created the social service, and the "social Gospel" theologians Washington gladden and walter rauschbusch are examples of public intellectuals.

In the progressive movement, the government also played a strong role in keeping the movement within the framework of the social system and avoiding violent revolution.

The problems faced by human beings are often similar or isomorphic. Today, both the United States and China are in a special historical period of social transformation, facing a series of problems affecting social harmony, such as political corruption, polarization between the rich and the poor, and moral anomies. China's reform should not only draw lessons from its own past, but also actively draw on the achievements of other civilizations with a broad vision and broad mind.

The experience of American progressivism shows the importance of social justice and public responsibility to social stability and harmonious development. It expresses a simple truth with facts: justice means progress, responsibility means stability. Only when social justice and responsibility are established first can all social strata live in harmony. For today's China, justice and responsibility is undoubtedly a reform banner with strong appeal, because China does have some problems in this respect. At present, China's wealth, natural resources, educational resources, economic opportunities and other resources have not yet achieved a completely reasonable distribution, there are some practical contradictions or hidden dangers. Therefore, to ensure the smooth progress of social transformation and economic construction, we must first constantly improve the situation of social injustice.

The more important revelation of progressivism lies in the establishment of direct government intervention in economic and social relations. It made Americans smarter politically, learned how to better play the regulatory and regulatory functions of the government, and formed a tradition of government regulation and intervention in economic life. Of course, China's reform must also rely on the power of the government, which must conform to public opinion and concentrate on solving the most popular problems. Government needs to pass legislation means fighting to establish institutional justice, judicial corruption, promote fair competition, concern for vulnerable groups, realize the education and equal employment opportunity, to ensure that the media supervision right, everyone is equal before the law, safeguard the social from all walks of life just, fair and open political participation rights, thus effectively resolve social friction, enhance social harmony and the socialist spiritual civilization construction, under the banner of justice concentrate the power of a pluralistic society, promote the system reform, to realize the sustainable development of social economy.

The success of American social transformation is not entirely due to the role of the government. In particular, the media is not only the source of the formation of public opinion, but also the carrier of the dissemination of public opinion, which plays an indispensable role in the country's social life. Although news reports do not have the coercive power of laws or decrees, they have a broad mass base and mass effect, which is enough to restrain individual behaviors from exceeding moral norms and supervise the government from breaking away from the track of democracy. The deepening of China's social transformation and reform objectively requires the news media to become a weapon to attack corruption and shoulder the historical mission of exercising the people's right to know and the right to be critical.

It is also the enlightenment of the progressive movement to attach importance to intellectuals. In the special period of social transformation, intellectuals often become the catalyst of social change. The intellectual's intellectual, ideological, social sensitivity and participation spirit is an important guarantee for the healthy development of society. The more intellectuals a nation has, the greater its hope and the brighter its future.

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