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British television operations

2019-03-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- British television operations,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的电视业运营。英国是世界上广播电视事业发展最早,也是最发达的国家之一,电视、广播、报纸和杂志在英国人日常生活中占据极其重要的地位。根据统计,每个英国人每周在电视机前所消耗的时间为27小时,占个人休闲时间的27%,而每周每个人收听广播的时间为16小时以上,占个人休闲时间的16%左右。这表明收看电视和收听广播是英国人每天不可缺少的娱乐和文化休闲。大多数英国人认为广播和电视是对于大众基本的公共服务事业和设施。

television operation,英国电视业运营,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The UK is the world's first radio and television development, is one of the most developed countries, television, radio, newspapers and magazines in the British daily life occupies an extremely important position. According to the 2005 statistics, 97% of British families have at least one TV set. Every British person spends 27 hours in front of the TV set every week, accounting for 27% of his/her leisure time. Every person listens to the radio for more than 16 hours every week, accounting for about 16% of his/her leisure time. In this way, watching TV and listening to radio have become indispensable entertainment and cultural leisure for British people every day. For 72 per cent of britons, television is their first or only source of information. In Europe, Britain is the second most tv-watching country after Italy. Most britons think of radio and television as basic public services and facilities for the masses.

Britain is the cradle of the world's radio industry. As early as December 1922, Britain's Marconi union announced the beginning of British broadcasting. In 1927, the British government acquired the established private broadcasting company into the British state-owned radio broadcasting company, holding the privilege of specialized operation. After 30 years, the British broadcasting corporation BBC radio has been the main base, namely the BBC in the UK, set up many local TV stations throughout the country and further formed the perfect network equipment, more than half of British households have a radio, in 1930, the BBC foreign international broadcasting, covers most of the english-speaking countries and British colony. Britain began the research and development of television technology in 1928. In 1936, the BBC announced the establishment of a television station to broadcast television news programs. During the World War II, Britain implemented the wartime system, and the BBC changed to be the head of the propaganda department of the British government. Only after the war did it return to the original system.

In the post-war 1950s, British broadcasting was restored and further developed. In 1955, the BBC began to develop new technologies, carried out large-scale frequency modulation, and established a high-power TV transmitter. In 1967-68, PAL color television was introduced in Britain. After the war, there was a heated debate on the monopoly of radio and television in Britain, which lasted for several years. Finally, the British parliament passed a resolution to allow private commercial television. In 1954, the British parliament passed the broadcasting act, which began to require the change of the policy of exclusive television operation of the British broadcasting corporation, and the independent television company (ITC) was established. In 1964, the BBC decided to start tv-2, which started broadcasting commercials and television programs. In 1972, the British government decided to develop the independent television company into the independent broadcasting authority (IBA), which managed both commercial television and radio. In 1973, the first private commercial television station and company were established and pilot broadcasting was conducted. As a result, the monopoly of TV and broadcasting by the BBC for a long time was broken.

At present, the British broadcasting and television industry is in full charge of the British national heritage department, which is mainly responsible for formulating and implementing a series of policies of British broadcasting and television, supervising various British broadcasting and television organizations, and implementing technical work such as the review and testing of British broadcasting and television programs. At present, the British broadcasting and TV institutions are public television and situation of coexistence of commercial radio and television, it is interesting to note that the two institutions, though different, but their existence, non-interference in each other, and mutual cooperation and coordination, operation is quite good, this situation is similar to and at present, China's television industry, such as radio, film and television unit and the central propaganda department is responsible for the mainstream media. Under the department of national and cultural heritage, there are three public agencies responsible for television and broadcasting services. The functions of these three agencies are to formulate and set requirements and work objectives, which are regulated by the legislation of parliament and supervised by the parliament and the government. However, they operate independently in daily business activities. These three institutions are:

The British Broadcasting Corporation is different from China in that there is no national TV station like CCTV in the UK, so the BBC plays the role of half of the British national TV station. The highest decision-making level of the BBC is its board of directors, which is responsible for making policies, guiding operations and managing affairs. This board of directors is the pentagon of the BBC, which decides all major issues and affairs of the BBC and is directly responsible to the British parliament. The BBC was the first public broadcaster in the world. It established a series of basic principles for public broadcasting. Until now, it is still one of the most authoritative and powerful international broadcasting and television organizations in the world. The British broadcasting corporation is a non-profit institution, which does not broadcast commercial advertising programs. Its funding comes from the British government's collection of radio and television receiver license fee, which is allocated by the British parliament every year. Commercial broadcasting companies, on the other hand, are profit-making organizations and mainly rely on the revenue from TV commercials.

The independent Television Commission is responsible for the supervision and administration of commercial Television, including the licensing of cable and satellite Television companies, and the formulation and enforcement of rules and regulations.

The Radio Authority is responsible for licensing commercial Radio stations, including cable and satellite television, and developing and enforcing rules and regulations.

The above three institutions operate independently, each with its own responsibilities and without interference. Under the management of the British parliament, they guarantee the normal operation of British domestic radio and television.

Compared with China, the mainstream TV sets sold in UK stores are still in the "primitive stage", mostly 14-inch or 15-inch convex color TVS. The current 19-inch TV in the UK is already quite large. Even at present, China has been popular flat-screen or super flat TV also rarely appears, as for plasma, high-definition color television, even combined-type home theater systems, is only shopping malls internal display, exhibition and decoration, very few British people, for the common people, these things are still extremely high luxury, they dare not want to have. Britain had sold a small screen color TV are equipped with subtitles real-time systems and their offspring a VCR, so television broadcast movie story, if the audience can easily see the subtitles, and TV of VCR and easily makes the audience to record their favorite shows or movies, watch again in the future. At present, most families in the UK still watch VHS videos, and DVD, which is widely used in China, has not been widely used in the UK. There is a unity in the national regulation, namely the user when buying televisions, in pay booths, the cashier to buy TV set above commodity bar code and the address of the buyer to pay fees to stay together, and then by the sellers or department by mail to the UK TV license fee department together, so buyers held the television in the home, put watch soon will receive a reminder letter from the television licence fee, ask the person to buy TV basic pay TV license fee in time. Under current UK rules, TV subscribers in the UK are required to pay a licence fee of 112 pounds per year or 20 pounds per month. Britain is a country of strict laws, and its people are honest and law-abiding, so few people refuse to pay for TV services. Under Britain's new broadcasting law, the money collected from British viewers will be used to pay for the operation of the national broadcaster. It should be noted that the 112 fee only covers access to the five basic television channels in the UK, so that each subscriber will be able to access only five channels, or 29 per cent of the viewing time on BBC1, the first channel, if they do not pay a hefty cable subscription fee. BBC two, channel two, accounts for 11.2% of total viewing time. ITV, Britain's independent television channel 3, accounts for 31.9% of the total viewing time. Channel 4 was also available, at 9.9%; Channel 5, 4.9%; The remaining 13.4 percent of viewing time was spent on cable or satellite television. English have a special department responsible for the inspection for residential area, the campus area region of our country, such as routine and raids, precisely a car retrieval of television signals to search, once found that users have the illegal use of TV signal, then by check, if it is found that the user can't show the legal license after the use of television, fine processing immediately, at least 500 pounds to pay heavy fines, in the UK due to such a small number of people are punished, but there are some foreign students choose to buy a second-hand television, to buy satellite antenna, watching television, for such an event, The penalties imposed by the British authorities were severe, including repatriation.

With the advent of the 21st century, the global media industry is currently experiencing a fierce competition, in the face of the rapid development of high and new technology, satellite communication, in particular, the emergence and popularity of the network, and therefore the media in the form of technology innovation and integration, in addition globalization brought about by the intermediaries, and the mass media products on medium consumption increasing internationalization and commercialization, international competition, the cross media competition is increasingly fierce, media and capital marriage has become a bright spot market. The current situation poses challenges to the media and regulatory bodies of various countries. Therefore, reform is urgent and cannot be eased. In this way, media policy, as an important key to the survival and development of the media, has also become the key to the survival and development of the contemporary media industry, an important ecological environment. As CCTV director zhao huayong pointed out, "we are in a great transition period, seize the opportunity, bold reform is our survival and development of the necessary measures. Some famous scholars of the west also have the same appeal: "European media is beginning to enter a from the" old order "to the" new order "transition, namely from the traditional to the public service and government control for the characteristics of the" old order "in the current impact of new technology and under the influence of transnational commercial forces, gradually by the new approach to the media in the breed is suitable for the development of the new era 'new order'." In the face of such situation, the British government constantly makes new policies on radio and television to adapt to the development of the British media industry.

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