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Student work in American universities

2019-03-11 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Student work in American universities,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的高校学生工作。美国的高校学生工作有学生人事工作、学生服务和学生发展等模式,逐步发展与完善,走出了一条专业化发展道路。学生工作以其学生本位的管理理念、条状运行的管理机制、服务为主的管理方式以及专业化的管理队伍为鲜明特征。

Student work,美国高校学生工作,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The student work in American colleges and universities has successively produced such models as "substitute parental system", "student personnel work", "student service" and "student development", and gradually developed and improved, and walked out of a path of professional development. Student work is characterized by its student-oriented management concept, strip operation management mechanism, service-oriented management mode and professional management team. These characteristics have important reference significance for the reform of student work in colleges and universities of our country.

College student work is an important part of college internal management. Along with our country the establishment of the socialist market economic system and a series of reforms to promote higher education field, such as the enrollment system, the two-way choice of pay cost school, graduate employment and independent choosing, the logistical socialization reform in colleges and universities, college expansion, the common practice of the credit system and flexible length of the trial, etc., to the student work puts forward a new topic and challenge. As the world higher education power and the country with the most complete and outstanding market operation mechanism, the United States has accumulated rich theoretical and practical experience in its student work. To discuss and study its student work is of great significance for improving our country's student work.

Student affairs, as a concept opposite to academic affairs, is a unique term of student affairs in American colleges and universities. Generally speaking, academic affairs involve students' study, curriculum setting, classroom teaching, students' cognitive development, etc., while student affairs involve students' organization, extracurricular activities, residential life, emotional and personal issues, etc. Therefore, student affairs is the general term for students' extracurricular activities and non-academic affairs, and student affairs management refers to the planning, organization and leadership of student affairs by colleges and universities. The division of student affairs is usually a major organization within American colleges and universities. It is the organization or unit responsible for the extracurricular education of students on campus. The student affairs administration is the general name of this professional field.

The student affairs and their management in American colleges and universities have experienced four stages of development: the early stage of history, the initiation stage, the development stage and the maturity stage, and accordingly formed the management mode of "replacing parents", "student personnel work", "student service" and "student development". Under the "alternative parental system", student affairs and academic affairs are indistinguishable. Colleges and universities take the place of students' parents and exercise strict boarding system for students and their campus life, with strict moral supervision and strict behavior control. It was used in colonial colleges and in state universities from independence until the early 19th century. After the middle of the 19th century, influenced by Germany, American universities began to focus on academics and research. On the other hand, the enactment of the morrill act led to the rapid development of the scale of higher education in the United States. Under the catalysis of these two factors, the student affairs management of American colleges and universities is separated from the academic affairs of the university and has gained the space of independent development. Colleges and universities began to establish some service, consultation and management institutions for students, and also began to set up a dean or vice President in charge of student affairs, thus forming the "student personnel work" mode. After the second world war, with the great development of higher education in the United States, the needs of the students are more diverse, to the end of the 60 s, with the number of slow growth, between college students increasingly competitive, and led to the student service mode, will be regarded as the relationship between students and schools both buyers and sellers, the relationship between school to establish the idea of "students consumers first", pay attention to and safeguard the rights and interests of students, provide various quality services for the development of students. "Student development" is an important theoretical and philosophical basis of student affairs management in American colleges and universities since the 1970s. It marks the increasingly perfect and professional development of student affairs management in American colleges and universities. This theory originated directly from the student wave in the 1960s and 1970s, and strengthened the special research on college students, such as the changes and development of students, the influencing factors of students' growth, the types of students' personality, and the relationship between various environments and students' growth. The student development model is student-oriented, respects the existence of individual students and promotes the self-realization of students. In other words, it advocates that college students have the right to decide their own life direction and choose the content of their education.

Today, there are three main terms in the field of student work in American colleges and universities: "student affairs", "student service" and "student development". Among them, "student affairs" is the most frequently used, and its content is increasingly rich, including all activities and related affairs of students outside the classroom. "Student service" is basically equivalent to "student affairs", which is characterized by a service-oriented concept to carry out "student affairs", reflecting the typical characteristics of the professional field of student work. "Student development" is more of a theoretical basis, which emphasizes that all student services, student affairs and management are aimed at promoting student development. According to published in 1994, the American association of university personnel "student learning is the top priority, the meaning of student affairs" spirit, the essences of student development lies in students' learning, "learning", "personality development" and "students' development" is inseparable, so American college students work by creating beneficial to education and learning environment, aimed at promoting students' learning and overall development. At this point, the university students work in its independent organization and staffing, on the basis of research and practice to strengthen unceasingly, has truly become neck and neck with academic affairs specialized fields, and more and more strengthened and academic affairs in the field of communication and combination, promote the all-round development of students, to realize the mission of higher education.

Twice in 1937 and 1949, the American council on education published the opinion of student personnel work report, points out that higher education institutions should "consider students as a whole person - the intellectual ability and accomplishment, feelings, physical condition, social relations, the professional attitudes and skills, moral and religious values, economic ability and aesthetic", namely "emphasize the students to develop as a person and not just for their intelligence training". In 1987, the national association of student personnel administrators issued the outlook on student affairs, which inherited the basic viewpoints of the outlook on student personnel affairs and reiterated the purpose of student affairs: to improve and support the teaching mission of colleges and universities; Promote common ideals and uphold individual rights by encouraging innovation and setting boundaries of conduct; Encourage independent thinking and joint action by students. In 1994, the American association of university personnel published "student learning is the top priority -- the meaning of student affairs", believing that "student affairs department oriented to student learning" should be committed to student learning and personality development.

It is not difficult to see from these guiding documents of student work that student work in American colleges and universities provides a variety of service programs or programs aimed at cultivating well-rounded people by creating an environment conducive to students' learning and development. In particular, six of the seven principles of student affairs management are closely related to the development of students, fully reflecting the student-oriented management philosophy. From the perspective of students, the student work in American colleges and universities emphasizes the management of the school in service and the realization of the mission and value of the school.

The student work of American colleges and universities implements the management system at the school level. School leadership, in general, there was a vice President in charge of students affairs, vice President of consists of the student affairs office as deals with the function of student affairs management institutions, and by a dean or several students affairs, in charge of, under the office of student affairs to establish various centers or office, and equipped with a head and staff engaged in a particular aspect of student affairs. At Texas agricultural university, for example, there is a vice President for student affairs, followed by an assistant vice President and an assistant vice President who lead and administer the student affairs. The assistant to the vice principal has five departments under his jurisdiction, namely, student accommodation department, student memorial activity center, leisure and sports center, multicultural service center and student activity center. The assistant vice-chancellor is in charge of four departments: the university arts collection and exhibition centre, the student life research centre, the major events and facilities centre and the student health service centre.

In terms of how to manage such a huge and complex variety of student affairs, four modes were summarized: The Revenue Source Model, The Affinity of Services Model, The Staff Associates Model and The Direct Supervision Model. Among them, the funding source model is mainly applicable to the management of such auxiliary services as dormitory administrator, student union, health service, catering service and bookstore. The staff association model, which allows the dean of students to exercise unified leadership over various groups and associations, is a compromise on the rigid direct management of large bureaucracies and organizational programs. However, the traditional direct supervision mode has been unable to adapt to the increasingly complex student affairs management. Comparatively, service - related mode is the most common operating mechanism in American universities. In this model, service items are classified according to their relevance, and different service items with similar purposes are classified according to certain criteria. For example, the usual division is as follows: first, admission services, including tuition fees, file management, financial aid, registration and admission education; Second, student life, including student activities, discipline, accommodation projects, student organization consulting; Third, the student service, including the consultation service, the employment resettlement, the overseas student service, the remedial service and so on; Fourth, auxiliary services, such as students living in the dormitory administrator management, student union management, health services, bookstore management. The experts responsible for these services report to the dean of students. Experts of all kinds have certain autonomy in their own fields, and the dean of students provides Suggestions based on the status of each branch to ensure mutual cooperation. In this way, the strip operation mechanism of student work is realized, and various institutions are independently set up and provided with window-like services by the team of experts.

The work of college students in the United States is rich and colorful, almost covering all categories except academic activities of students. For example, some experts believe that related to the student affairs department or service projects include: accommodation, transportation service, graduates, admissions, freshman orientation, financial aid, counseling center, advice, leadership development, student activities, student unions, community service, employment guidance, disciplinary and arbitration issues, contact with alumni and development, service for disabled students, learning services and various defense and support project.

In specific student affairs, the word "project" is most frequently used. This shows that the content of students' work is mostly a variety of service projects, such as orientation education for freshmen, accommodation and living services, financial aid, health services, counseling services, employment guidance services. Accordingly, student job basically adopts advisory, coach, service to give priority to means. Of course, student work in American colleges and universities also includes the management of students' codes of conduct and discipline, accommodation and life. But in the concrete management operation, regards the student as an equal member, the full respect student's main body status, the protection student's legitimate rights and interests. For example, strict procedures must be followed to punish the students who violate the rules. The process mode is as follows: the plaintiff's complaint and report, the student management department's investigation, the special committee's hearing and punishment decision, the defendant's appeal, the principal's arbitration, and the implementation of punishment.

In the United States, college student work has become a career direction, the management is a professional development path. First of all, American colleges and universities have the major of cultivating master's degree and doctor's degree in student affairs, and study student affairs as a science. As early as 1916, the school of education of Columbia University in the United States launched the postgraduate training program of student affairs management. Up to now, more than 100 universities have set up education and training programs at the level of master or doctor of student affairs. Secondly, colleges and universities have clear requirements and procedures for the employment and promotion of student affairs management personnel. Students usually apply to work in the field of student affairs with a master's degree in psychological counseling, student affairs practice, student development and other aspects. They must also have a doctorate in a related field in order to achieve a middle management position. Promotion to senior positions also places special emphasis on past experience in student affairs management. Finally, student affairs officers take full advantage of various learning, training and communication opportunities to promote their professional development. From the type of professional development, there are formal, informal and informal professional development; In terms of the form or level of professional development, there are individual professional development, group or project professional development, professional development in the field of affairs, interdepartmental professional development and professional development facilitated by professional associations, etc.

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