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Ecological footprint theory

2019-11-18 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Ecological footprint theory,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了生态足迹理论。生态足迹又称生态占有,指的是能够提供特定人口的资源和废弃物消纳的具有生物生产的土地面积。目前,生态足迹理论已成为国际上用来度量和评价可持续发展的一个重要方法,其直观且综合的优点被广泛应用于各级范围、各种尺度、多个领域的生态承载力和可持续发展定量评价中。自然生态系统是人类赖以生存和发展的基础,也是提出生态足迹概念的基本思路,人类在生存和发展过程中所需要的产品和服务,以及在生活与生产中产生的废物,均是直接或间接的从自然生态环境中获取或排放,因此给自然生态系统造成了一定的压力,而这种对自然产生的压力只要处于生态系统的承载范围内,自然环境就是安全和可持续状态的,反之,就是不可持续状态的。

Ecological footprint theory is one of the important methods to evaluate and measure the degree of sustainable development. The ecological footprint analysis method is easy to understand, has strong operability and has clear results. Therefore, it is widely used in regional sustainable evaluation.

Ecological footprint, also known as ecological occupancy, refers to the area of land with biological production that can provide resources and wastes for specific population consumption. The concept and model of ecological footprint were first introduced into China by xu zhongmin, Yang kaizhong, zhang zhiqiang and other scholars, who laid a foundation for the study of ecological footprint theory in China. At present, ecological footprint theory has become an important method to measure and evaluate sustainable development in the world, and its intuitive and comprehensive advantages have been widely used in the quantitative evaluation of ecological carrying capacity and sustainable development in various levels, scales and fields. Natural ecological system is the foundation of human survival and development, is also put forward the basic train of thought of the concept of ecological footprint, human need in the process of the survival and development of products and services, as well as waste in the life and production, are directly or indirectly obtain or emissions from the natural ecological environment, which caused certain pressure to the natural ecological system, and as long as the pressure on natural ecological system of the host range, the natural environment is safe and sustainable state, on the other hand, is an unsustainable state.

In the analysis of ecological footprint, "ecological bearing capacity", "ecological footprint" and other important indicators are defined by ecological productive land, which can be divided into 6 categories. Fossil fuel land: in the calculation and analysis of ecological footprint, the land area of fossil fuel needed to compensate for the consumption of fossil energy and absorb the CO2 released by it should be considered comprehensively, especially in Inner Mongolia, which is rich in fossil fuel resources. Cultivated land: land on which crops are grown; Cultivated land has the highest production capacity among the six categories of ecological productive land. Cultivated land in Inner Mongolia has 95.4 million hm2, accounting for 82.6% of the total land area of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Cultivated land is the largest type of ecological productive land in Inner Mongolia. Pasture: land used for the development of animal husbandry; The total grassland area of Inner Mongolia ranks the first in China, about 78.8 million hm2, accounting for 66.6 percent of the total area of Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Forest land: refers to the area or natural forest used for forestry production; The global forest area is about 3.44 billion hm2, most of which have low ecological productivity. Building land: land for the construction of residential buildings and public facilities; With the acceleration of urbanization, building land is one of the main reasons for the decrease of arable land. Water areas: including rivers, fresh water lakes, oceans, salt water lakes, etc. Inner Mongolia waters are dominated by inland lakes in arid and semi-arid areas, including hulun lake, beihu lake, wuliangsuhai lake and daihai lake.

Ecological carrying capacity, also known as ecological capacity, refers to the total area of ecological productive land that a region can provide to human beings. Ecological carrying capacity reflects the sustainability of the carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem. Its two upper and lower thresholds are related to the development of the regulating function of the natural ecosystem and the sustainable development of human society. Therefore, if human society wants to develop steadily for a long time, it must live within the two thresholds of the carrying capacity of the ecosystem, that is, the sustainable development of human beings must be built on the premise of the ecosystem's intact self-regulation function and complete supply of products and services, and activities within the ecological carrying capacity of the natural ecosystem.

Ecological footprint refers to the area of ecologically productive land necessary for a specific population to maintain a certain level of material consumption, which means that under the current economic and living conditions, human beings can meet the requirements of ecological environment for current and future survival. Ecological footprint is mainly to compare the gap between the ecological services provided by nature and the ecological services required by human beings, study the dependence of human beings on the ecosystem and the carrying capacity of the ecosystem, and finally measure the degree of sustainable development of this region. If the demand for products and services provided by the natural ecosystem is less than that of the largest ecological service, then the development of the region is sustainable, and vice versa.

Both ecological carrying capacity and ecological footprint are measured by bioproductive land area. Therefore, the two can be directly compared, and the results represent the current situation of environmental and resource utilization in this region. "Ecological deficit" means that the ecological carrying capacity of an area is less than the ecological footprint, while "ecological surplus" is the opposite. The ecological deficit indicates that the demand for natural ecological services exceeds the ecological carrying capacity of the natural ecological environment, which indicates that the region is in a state of unsustainable development. The ecological surplus indicates that the ecological carrying capacity of the natural environment in this region is greater than the ecological footprint of local people, indicating that the region is in a state of sustainable development.

Equilibrium factor: in ecological footprint calculation, all kinds of consumption and services can be replaced by 6 types of basic ecological productive land areas. Due to the different production capacity and types of each type of ecological productive land, to calculate the total ecological footprint of each type, it is necessary to multiply by an equilibrium coefficient to establish an equivalent relationship, and the coefficient used for this transformation is the equilibrium factor. Yield factor: just like the calculation process of ecological footprint, the productivity of 6 types of basic ecological productive land in different countries and regions as well as between the same type of land also varies in different geographical and climatic backgrounds due to different resource conditions and climatic conditions. Therefore, in order to convert the area of each type of land in the research area into the same type of land with global average productivity, a conversion factor, namely yield factor, needs to be introduced. The purpose of introducing yield factor is to standardize the area of the same type of biologically productive land in different regions.

Ecological footprint of ten thousand yuan GDP by area per capita ecological footprint per capita gross domestic product (GDP) divided by the area and concluded that the ecological footprint of ten thousand yuan GDP reflects the resource utilization efficiency, the greater the ecological footprint of ten thousand yuan GDP value shows that the region economy development mode of resource utilization efficiency is lower, the higher the resource utilization efficiency, conversely it is to measure the economic consumption and waste management under the condition of regional population size required for biological production area.

As a measurable measure of the degree of sustainable development, ecological footprint theory is based on two basic assumptions: it can determine the amount of waste, resource utilization and energy consumption generated by most human consumption; The amount of resources and wastes can be converted by the biological production area or ecological production area that produces and absorbs these resources and wastes. Therefore, if the population is known, the ecological footprint can be replaced by the total area of land produced by different types of organisms.

International research on ecological footprint can be traced back to the 1970s, but the concept of ecological footprint was first proposed by William Rees, a famous Canadian ecological economist, in 1992, and perfected and improved by his doctoral student Wackemagel in 1996, making it the initial framework of the current ecological footprint model. In terms of global scale research, Wackemagel et al. took the lead in analyzing the ecological footprint of 52 countries in the world, and the results showed that the ecological footprint of humans in the global scope was far higher than the global ecological carrying capacity, and 82% of countries had ecological deficit. At the same time, the threshold of the world's per capita ecological footprint is 1.7hm2. If this speed is developed, the threshold of the global per capita ecological footprint will decrease by about 59% within 30a. In terms of national scale research: influenced by the global scale ecological footprint research, scholars from various countries have also carried out a large number of studies on the national ecological footprint scale. Based on the analysis of "life planet report", zhang zhiqiang conducted a comprehensive study on the ecological footprint of 150 countries around the world. At present, ecological footprint analysis has become the main method to evaluate and measure the sustainable development of regions and cities.

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