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The United States is over-industrialized

2019-11-07 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The United States is over-industrialized,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国过度去工业化。去工业化,是指一个国家的工业化发展到一定阶段后所表现出的制造业就业比重持续下降的现象。随着全球化进程的加快,经济增长乏力和劳动力成本上升等问题的出现,以美国为首的资本主义国家开始出现去工业化的苗头,表现为被迫去工业化。在美国去工业化进程中,对于再工业化的辩论此消彼长,一部分人认为只要再工业化才可以逆转经济下降的趋势,去工业化已经恶化了资本主义国家的宏观经济环境,而且导致实体经济与虚拟经济的关系往崎岖的道路上发展。

After the end of its civil war, the United States began its rapid industrialization, and by the mid-1990s, the United States had become the world's industrial power. After more than 20 years of sustained and rapid development after World War II, the economic structure of the United States has undergone significant changes, with manufacturing and agriculture declining relative to the service industry. By the 1970s, productivity growth in the United States slowed down, social unrest increased, many negative aspects of economic life were highlighted, and deindustrialization became increasingly evident. At present, our country begins to carry on industrial structure adjustment, and begin to appear deindustrialization phenomenon. As a country's economic transformation and upgrading process, deindustrialization is full of risks and challenges. The problems arising from the excessive deindustrialization in the United States will bring some enlightenment to our economic restructuring.

"Deindustrialization" refers to the phenomenon that the proportion of manufacturing employment continues to decline after a certain stage of industrialization of a country. In the process of global industrialization, three industrial revolutions have taken place. The first industrial revolution first took place in Britain in the 1860s, replacing traditional factory handicraft industry with mass production by machines, which was the origin of industrialization. After the second world war, the third industrial revolution was initiated by the United States, the international economic pattern changed, and the world manufacturing activity began to spread to more countries and regions. Especially from the 1960s to the 1990s, China's coastal areas developed rapidly by taking advantage of their comparative advantages and entered the stage of industrialization. Due to the rapid development of high-tech industries, the United States and other "catching up with big industrialized countries" began to enter the post-industrial society, which is called deindustrialization.

With the acceleration of globalization, weak economic growth and rising labor costs, capitalist countries led by the United States began to show signs of deindustrialization, which was forced to deindustrialization. In comparison, the United States, due to the advantage of first mover, has received a lot of benefits, but the adverse impact is also more prominent, detonated the United States "subprime" crisis. In capitalist countries in the process of industrialization, for debate industrial shift, part of scholars believe that as long as industrialized again to reverse the trend of economic decline, de-industrialisation has worsened the macroeconomic environment of the capitalist countries, and lead to the relationship between the real economy and virtual economy development on the rugged road. However, the de-industrialized economies without the support of real industry did not show economic imbalances and stagnation, which was also due to the support of bubble economy. Since the global financial crisis, in order to get rid of the economic crisis, the call for re-industrialization is increasingly high. After the financial crisis, the developed countries returned to industrialization and entered the development track of both industrialization and financialization, that is, the strategy of reindustrialization was realized.

At present, the tertiary industry dominated by financial services has accounted for more than 80% of the GDP in the United States, while the primary industry dominated by agriculture only accounts for 1% of the GDP, and the secondary industry dominated by new energy, new materials, biotechnology and high-tech industries accounts for about 20% of the GDP. Modern service industry occupies the top end of the industrial chain, with high added value and great integration function to the primary industry and the secondary industry. In the us, service sector employment accounts for more than 70 percent of the total employed population, and household consumption accounts for 80 percent of GDP.

By sector, the added value of the primary industry accounts for about 11% of GDP. The added value of the secondary industry accounts for about 49% of the GDP. The added value of the tertiary industry accounts for about 40 per cent of GDP, half the share of the us service sector and 20 per cent less than the share of India's service sector. The service sector accounts for only 30 percent of the total number of people employed in China, and total household consumption only accounts for 35 percent of China's GDP. Moreover, the output value of the real estate industry in China's secondary industry has reached 10%. Most of the other industrial output value comes from the light textile industry and the heavily polluting mining, steel, cement and chemical industries. The proportion of high-tech industry is less than 10%.

It can be seen from the proportion of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries and the added value of the industries in the us and China respectively that the two countries have unreasonable industrial structure. The us service sector accounts for too much, industry for too little, and the real economy is seriously hollowing out. China has developed manufacturing industry, but the products it produces are low-end and low-quality goods. In order to realize the transformation and upgrading of China's economic structure, it is necessary to go through the process of deindustrialization. At present, the main problem of the us is that the tertiary industry accounts for too much while the primary and secondary industries account for too little.

Economics studies have found that early to raise consumption accounted for, the more part of the national income to spend, not conducive to the improvement of productivity, also, at the time of lower labor costs more labor force shift from manufacturing to service industry, overall productivity will decline, it is the world's experience, so early to increase consumption and services proportion can reduce productivity growth and level, distort economic long-term growth trend in the end. As a result of our policy rebalancing over the years, China is likely to be experiencing "premature deindustrialisation". An early deindustrialisation could have a negative impact on China's growth prospects.

From the emergence of financial crisis to the mention of western "reindustrialization", the economic decline of contemporary capitalist countries has provided theoretical basis and warning for China to correctly deal with the relationship between manufacturing and service industry. According to statistics, the current profit rate of China's manufacturing industry sales is 6.19%, while developed countries are generally between 13% and 20%, far higher than China's development level. China's manufacturing enterprises invest very little in industrial design, almost less than 1%, while the capital investment in developed countries can account for 5% ~ 15% of the total output value, the United States and other countries high to 30%. China must fully realize the core status of manufacturing industry, adjust the transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing industry, and realize the transformation from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power.

The "reindustrialization" strategy put forward by the United States and other capitalist countries aims to revitalize the leading position of manufacturing industry in the American economy and transform and optimize and upgrade the traditional manufacturing industry, which is reflected in the vigorous development of emerging industries and the comprehensive upgrading of industrial structure. Therefore, the new "Chinese model" of industrialization should follow the objective requirements of "circular economy", vigorously develop strategic emerging industries, make China's economy stable and rapid development.

Money and credit field and industrial capital are two main ways for capital to gain profits. Thus, when capital cannot be profited through industrial capital, it is profited through the credit sector and, more often than not, through speculation or excessive financialization. As the profit margin of industrial capital gradually shrinks, there is indeed a risk of a full-blown speculative crisis in China. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the monetary and financial rules to prevent industrial capital from flowing into the monetary and financial areas.

Deindustrialization is an economic phenomenon, and we must objectively recognize its existence. If deindustrialization is simply regarded as the decline of manufacturing output and employment share from the narrow perspective of macroeconomic perspective, then according to the statement of the pythie theorem, deindustrialization is a normal transformation and transformation phenomenon that is inevitable after the social and economic development reaches a certain degree. It is particularly important to note that, according to the objective trend of historical development, if the transformation of the mode of economic development can be successfully achieved at this stage, the country can successfully become a high-income country. Transition is not smooth, be immersed in the stagnant period of economic growth and hover. Western capitalist countries, led by the United States, and Asian countries, Japan and South Korea, seem to have generally completed this transition, although there are different degrees of problems to be solved.

From the current situation, China has only started to push forward the industrialization stage, and there is no total deindustrialization. However, due to the rapid development of China's economy and the appearance of unbalanced regional development, some provinces have shown signs of deindustrialization, which requires our vigilance. China needs to analyze and summarize the experience and lessons of the deindustrialization of the United States, steadily develop through structural and regional deindustrialization, take science and technology and innovation as the foothold, improve the financial system and implement effective resource allocation strategies, and take the road of industrialization of the new "Chinese model".

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