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An investigation into the factors influencing employee turnover a case study of shangri-la hotel in Beijing

2020-02-04 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文

1.Introduction

One of the benefits of the development of the hospitality industry in any economy is the provision of employment (Kusluvan, 2003). The industry is made up of many diverse sectors including travel agencies, tour operators, transportation, accommodation and attractions which require varied occupational skills and abilities.
However, the high employee turnover rate of hospitality industry can never be ignored. Employee Turnover is one of the key issues in the world’s hospitality. Worldwide scholars have suggested that employee turnover is highest in the hospitality industry.
This study is therefore to analyze the factors influencing employee turnover and job satisfaction for hotel industry by using the case study of Shangri-La hotel in Beijing.

2.Aim and objectives

Shangri-La Hotel, Beijing is a quality five star hotel, which provides high-level of comfort and personalized services, is known to visitors all over China or even the whole world. It can be denied that first-class services are provided by employees with due diligence. Without a steady workforce, services can hardly be guaranteed. Like other noted hotels, this hotel is facing problems regarding employee turnover.

The aim of this paper will be to investigate the factors influencing employee turnover.

The following are the two objectives of the paper.
1.To understand the effect of the various factors influencing employee turnover in Shangri-La Hotel in Beijing.
2.To recommend the best ways to improve employee’s satisfaction in Shangri-La Hotel in Beijing.





3.Methodology

The study applied descriptive survey research design. Research variables chosen for the study were gender, age, level of education, training, duration in employment. Job change since the variable is considered to be affected by variations of conditions of the independent variables that present themselves in the work environment. An in-depth analysis of the findings was done using questionnaires. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation ratio, percentile and correlation were used to get the study findings.
Besides the descriptive survey research, in-depth interviews were conducted on employees Shangri-La hotel in Beijing and those who have already left the hotel to collect more advice and suggestions concerning the staff turnover problem of the hotel.

4.Literature Review

4.1 Definition of turnover

Turnover normally is defined as the amount of movement of employees in and out of an organization, which often presents in terms of the turnover rate. Mobley defines employee turnover as the discontinuance of membership in an organization by the person who received monetary compensation from the organization. Tanke has described turnover as the movement of employees out of the organization. Carley states that employee turnover means the rotation of workers around the labor market, between organizations, jobs and careers.

All in all, the above mentioned turnover definition by different researchers helped to conclude that the movements of employees, who received monetary compensation from the enterprise, by rotating around the labor market, between organizations, jobs and careers, generally present in terms of the turnover rate.

4.2 Causes of Turnover
As Walker (2006) mentioned, high rates of employee turnover may be endemic in the hospitality industry, however, which is not unavoidable. The most vital period of turnover incidents is the first few days and weeks of the incorporation of a new staff in the company. Walker pointed out, more people leave then than at any other time, which is called the induction crisis and it occurs when the new employee for whatsoever reason, has not been integrated into the team.
It may be caused by poor recruitment with little care and time spent on enabling the new comer to build strong relationships with his leaders and co-workers; Moreover, they are not satisfied with their pay, they may argue their pay don’t match the competition and job responsibilities. The impulse to leave and get higher pay may be overpowering” remarks Walker (2006). However, he hold the view that people remain in jobs that they like even though higher pay may be available elsewhere. this decision are affected by the following factors: - whether there are good employment conditions, if the staff like the business working environment and if there are realistic chances for development, people are likely to stay (Walker, 2006).


5.Results
5.1 Age

Results of the study show that most of the respondents; both male and female were in the age bracket from 25 to 30 years followed by 31 percent in the age bracket of between 31 – 40 years. The figure also shows that 23% of the respondents were less than 25 years old and merely 5% were more than 40 years old. Based on the ILO report, young people, when choosing their first job, have greater expectations from the current jobs and whenever such expectations are not realized within a period of 6 months, they quit to hunt for better opportunities.

5.2 Level of Education

It is revealed in the study that 51% of the subjects had diploma certificates while 33% finished secondary level without any post-secondary qualifications. The research further showed that, merely 10% were degrees holders and only 5% had post graduate qualifications, which is in line with the study by Riley, that about two thirds or 64% of jobs in the hotels, restaurants are either unskilled or semiskilled. As Baum (1996) and Wood (1997) pointed out, jobs in the hospitality industry are considered as low status jobs with low payments and poor working surroundings.

6. Conclusion and Recommendations

In conclusion, the study also revealed that very few young people are willing to work in the hospitality industry for long as evidenced by the dominance of the industry by employees who are between 31- 40 years of age, which indicates that most of the respondents had not been in Shangri-La hotel for a long time.
This research aims to analyze the factors affecting the rate of employee turnover in the hotel industry in Shangri-La hotel. From the conclusions made, the recommendations are as follows.
Firstly, at the Organizational Level, it is suggested that the hotel managers should apply leadership styles which won’t have negative influence on the employees` morale. Moreover, the hotel management should consider constructing structures which support career development including; training and academy so as to provide its staff with promising career growth chances.
Secondly, at the Job Level, the work duties or task roles and the expected performance of each employee in the hotel should be clearly defined. Staff should not be shouldered with work that they can’t deal with. The employer should provide suggestion and proposals for the specific tasks distributed to the employees. As long as extra tasks are assigned in the contract terms, the employer should remunerate the staff for the same.
Generally speaking, the management should make sure that, there is a comfortable and beneficial working environment provided for the staff.


6.Reference

Babbie, E & Mouton,J. (2001) The practice of Social Research. Cape Town: Oxford University Press, Southern Africa.

Bolch, M. (2001, April15). The coming Crunch; Human Resource Training Magazine, 196(2628), 42-46.

Bull , A. (1995). The economics of travel and tourism, 2nd ed. Melbourne: Pitman.
Confederation of British Industry (2005). Who Cares Wins; Absence and Labour Turnover, CBI, London.

Erbes, R. (1973). International Tourism and the Economy of Developing Countries. Paris: Organisation for Economic Coopoeration and Development.

Hjalager,A.& Andersen,S.(2001). Tourism employment: contingent work or professional career? Employee Relations .Vol 23 (2), pp115-129.

Hiemstra, S. J. (1990). Employment policies and practices in the lodging industry, International Journal of Hospitality Management Volume 9 (No.3) pp 207-221.

Hospitality and Catering Training Company; (1994). Management Development Review. Issues in Hospitality and Catering Vol 8 (No1) pp 37-40.

Kusluvan, S. (2003) Multinational enterprises in tourism: A case study of Turkey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Strathclyde University, the Scottish Hotel School, Glascow.

Taylor, S. (2002). People and Organization Employee Resourcing. Prentice-Hall, Sidney; Australia.

Zuber, A. (2001). "A career in food service cons: high turnover", Nations Restaurant News, Vol. 35 (No.21), pp.147-14.


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