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Misconceptions About Multiple Personality Disorder

2019-05-14 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Misconceptions About Multiple Personality Disorder,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了多重人格障碍。对公众来说,多重人格障碍被描述为一种有趣的精神疾病,通过大众媒体创造的流行形象。一个人可以分裂成不同的性格,每个人都有不同的特点。精神分裂症作为一种最典型的精神疾病,常被公众误认为是多重扔个障碍,毕竟从外表上看,两者的含义大致相同。然而两者是不同的,精神分裂症是一种人格破碎的疾病,而多重人格障碍则是一个人多重完整人格的重叠。

Multiple Personality Disorder,多重人格障碍,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

For the public, Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) has been portrayed as an intriguing mental illness, through the popular images created by mass media. A person is able to split into different personalities each with distinctive traits. In the classic movie Identity (2003), 11 different persons gather in an isolated motel at a dark, stormy night. These persons including men, women, and children. After the murders that occurred in the motel, the audience gradually realize that all of these persons are actually the alternate personalities of the same man. Similar works include Fight Club (1999), in which an office worker under pressure unconsciously creates an alternate personality, who is much more dominant and violent than himself. Under the influence of these movies, the news coverage of Multiple Personality Disorder has often adopted a casual style and a personal experience narrative, trying to communicate to the public how it feels to have MPD. However, what these news reports lack in common is a proper approach to MPD and its distinction from Schizophrenia.

MPD, otherwise referred to as Dissociative Disorder, is characterized primarily by the fact that the patients experience painful events that separate unpleasant memories from the cognitive dimension (Spanos 1994). Such a separation means that the individual is no longer considered as an entirety psychologically. With the termination of adolescence, individuals usually form a clear and definitive personality and character. However, patients with MPD will have two or more identities and personalities, each capable of sensing the environment, and each have certain level of perception, relationship, and idea (Spanos 1994). At different times, the person’s mind is dominated by different personalities. Between these different personalities there may exist some connections and personalities, but it is also possible for different personalities to be unaware of each other. Since the latter case is more suitable for creating dramatic effects, it is predominantly depicted in films and literature. In reality, most of the personalities of a person with MPD are able to coexist in harmony, and there definitely is no killing each other (Spanos 1994). Through hypnosis, it has been proven that MPD is not a product of imagination or fantasy, but the multiple appearances of personalities within the single spiritual level.

In the article by Spanos (1994), the author proposes the approach to MPD from the socio-cognitive perspective. This may be among the earliest attempts of the psychological scientific community to distinguish MPD from other psychiatric problems. However, MPD is still largely perceived by the public as a mental illness, categorically different from other psychological disorders like OCD. The main reason to trigger MPD is childhood abuse (Spanos, 1994), leading to the activation of a protection mechanism that prevent further psychological damage to the victims. Meanwhile, childhood trauma may not be the necessary condition for MPD, since there are also cases where people with MPD have a perfectly normal childhood. For people with MPD, different personalities are governed by a complex yet organized manner, so that conflict is minimized. With the completely personalities being regulated and maintained through social interactions, MPD should not be considered as an illness (Spanos 1994), but instead a psychological disorder.

Another common misconception by the public, is to equate Schizophrenia with MPD. Schizophrenia is a mental illness that has a much more frequent occurrence than MPD. There are one schizophrenic patients out of every 100 persons in the world (Walther & Strik, 2012). The main symptoms of schizophrenia involve a wide range of disorders such as difficulties in sensory, perception, thinking, emotional and behavioral functions, as well as incoordination of mental activity (Walther & Strik, 2012). For example, the feeling of auditory and visual hallucinations. For Schizophrenia, the most common obstacle in thinking is delusion, with 80% of Schizophrenia patients having prejudice delusional, emotionally indifference, anxiety, depression, decreased interest in various activities, and cognitive dysfunction (Walther & Strik, 2012). Patients with Schizophrenia always think that they are hearing some voices, which are often hostile ones. They have their own set of cognitive and ideological concepts and cannot communicate normally with people. The emotions of Schizophrenia patients are commonly exaggerated in daily life, leading to sudden tears or laughter without reason.

As the most typical mental illness, Schizophrenia is often mistaken for MPD by the public, since the two contain roughly similar meanings from appearance. However, the frequency of Schizophrenia is much higher than MPD. In addition, as discussed above, MPD can be perceived from both the health and the psychological perspectives. Making it improper to categorically refer to it as a mental disease. In comparison, Schizophrenia is definitely a mental illness. Schizophrenia patients also suffer from individual psychological impairment, with damaged cognitive functions and unable to participate in normal life. However, people with MPD have each of their personalities functioning as an independent individual, and their cognitive function is relatively comprehensive and complete. The treatment methods of the two also differ greatly. Schizophrenia is treated mainly with medicine, while MPD mainly with counseling. Basically, Schizophrenia is the illness of a shattered personality, while MPD is the overlapping of multiple complete personalities in one person.

In conclusion, with an emphasis on personal stories and experiences in news coverage, the most important information of MPD have not been effective delivered to the public. The public misconceptions of MPD including the dramatic, conflicting, and violent nature portrayed in films and mass media, the equivalence of MPD to a mental illness, and confusing MPD with a much more common mental illness, Schizophrenia. Clearing these misconceptions is helpful to construct a better public understanding of MPD.

References

Spanos, N. P. (1994). Multiple identity enactments and multiple personality disorder: A socio-cognitive perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 116(1), 143-165.

Walther, S., & Strik, W. (2012). Motor symptoms and schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology, 66(2), 77.

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