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The governing body of American athletics

2019-04-15 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The governing body of American athletics,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国田径运动的管理。美国的田径运动之所以能长期在世界上保持领先地位,跟其田协组织机构健全,法规制度和管理职能完善有很大的关系。美国的田径管理组织机构健全,3大体系各有侧重且相互间协调发展,每年有非常多的青少年儿童参加田径竞赛训练,优秀青少年运动员层出不穷,也为美国田径保持强大奠定了宽广而坚实的人才基础。

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Track and field is the foundation of all sports, and it is also the event that has produced the most gold MEDALS in all previous Olympic Games. The modern summer Olympics actually took place 26 times from 1896 to 2008. The United States participated in all but the 22nd, held in Moscow in 1980. In the track and field competitions of these 25 Olympic Games, the United States has won a total of 312 gold MEDALS and 736 MEDALS, with an average of 12.5 gold MEDALS and 29.4 MEDALS in each Olympic Games, leading the world in absolute terms. At the 2004 Athens Olympics and the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the U.S. track and field team topped the MEDALS table despite a strong challenge from the tiny central American nation of Jamaica, which dropped from 10 to 13 golds in previous games to eight and seven respectively. In the current 47 Olympic track and field events, the United States still holds the men's 400 m, 400 m hurdles, 4 400 m relay, long jump, shot put and women's 100 m, 200 m, heptathlon and other eight world records, indicating that its overall track and field strength is still very strong.

China's track and field foundation is very weak, the competitive level and the national competitive sports overall strength status in the world is not commensurate, and the United States as the world "track and field kingdom", in the management of competition training must have its unique. I know I can handle other things. To explore and reveal the secret of American track and field's long-term dominance in the world from the perspective of management is undoubtedly of reference value for the development of Chinese track and field.

The American amateur sports federation was founded in 1887. Since then, the AAU has had a 92-year history of governing sports in the United States. In 1978, the amateur sports act of the United States ruled that individual sports could have separate governing bodies. 1979 the first annual meeting of the U.S. athletic council was held in Las Vegas. In 1980, the TAC began to exercise separate management rights over U.S. track and field. In 1992,TAC changed its name to the American athletic association and was headquartered in Indianapolis, indiana.

In May 2008, in view of the United States had organization is too large and complex mixed noise and sound, the United States sports supreme leadership body, the United States Olympic committee for its proposed wording stern warning and requires rectification within a time limit, otherwise will be taken to cut off from the $2 million aid until cancelled had on American track and field management and a series of punishment. The association responded quickly and overhauled its organization after the Beijing Olympics. In February 2009, the association reduced its top leadership from five to three, its board of directors from 31 to 15, and its subordinate departments and committees were adjusted and downsized. At present, the functional departments located in the headquarters of iaaf include the basic department, high-level department, elite athletes department, career development and accounting department, communications department, event reporting department, Marketing Department and other seven departments. There are 4 competition departments and 1 committee in many other cities: high-level competition department, including 7 committees of men's track and field, women's track and field, race walking, coach training, men's development, women's development, sports medicine and science; The long-distance running competition department has 6 committees, including men's long-distance running, women's long-distance running, master long-distance running, cross-country running, road running, mountain running/ultra-long-distance running/tracking running, etc.; General competition department, responsible for the organization of master track and field competitions; Youth competition division; The administrative committee is responsible for the consultation and management of athletes, coaches, referees, disabled athletes, regulations and legislation, member services, rules, records and other 8 aspects.

As a member of the iaaf in the United States, the iaaf is authorized by the USOC to administer the national track and field program under the ted Stevens Olympic and amateur sports act. The basic mission of the iaaf is to raise the level of athletics in the United States, to develop American interest in athletics, and to get more people involved in athletics. The American association of athletics has three strategic objectives. Development and improvement objectives: to increase interest in and participation in track and field at all levels, support and help athletes at all levels to improve their performance, and maximize the competitive power of American track and field athletes in international competitions; Management objectives: to promote the development of athletics and track and field athletes through the organization of competitions and cooperation with other sports organizations; Promotion objective: to enhance public understanding, appreciation and support of iaaf, to expand funding sources, to create opportunities for the development of iaaf and athletics athletes, and to support iaaf in fulfilling its duties and objectives.

The American association of athletics management functions can be summarized into five aspects. Competition management: planning, organizing and approving track and field competitions, coordinating with other sports organizations to reduce the conflicts between track and field competitions and other events on the schedule; Member management: as a qualified athletes for registered members to qualify for the proof issued by international competition athlete, communication with the athletes, to keep its policy on had knowledge of rules and feedback their opinions, for athletes, coaches and referees, and management personnel to provide opportunities to participate in track and field and the corresponding protection; Business training management: provide opportunities and help for coaches and referees at all levels to obtain various relevant certificates; Training and scientific research management: provide technical guidance, coordination and information for the physical training, training teaching and technical analysis of sports teams at all levels, encourage and support the research and analysis of sports medicine and sports safety in track and field projects; Track and field management for vulnerable groups: strengthen women's track and field and support disabled people to participate in track and field.

The operation of the association and the performance of its management functions are based on a series of laws and regulations. The American association of athletics federations (iaaf) 's 192-page management manual is divided into five parts, namely the governing body, rules, regulations, definitions and appendices. In conjunction with this, the association has developed a 264-page "rules of the game", which includes six parts: tournament classification and selection of Olympic teams, drug testing, referees, rules of the game, records and special plans. All athletes, coaches, referees, managers and organizations must strictly abide by these rules and regulations when engaging in relevant activities, otherwise they will be punished accordingly. The association's annual meeting is held at the end of each year. Nearly a thousand representatives from all over the country come together to review and analyze the association's work in that year, look forward to and discuss the work in the coming year, and adjust and modify the management rules and competition rules.

There are four main types of iaaf membership. Individual members: athletes, elite athletes, athletes with disabilities, coaches, referees, administrators and other individuals may join the IAAF subject to the relevant rules and regulations of the international Olympic committee, USOC, IAAF and IAAF. The iaaf currently has more than 100,000 individual members, and athletes competing in the iaaf system must be iaaf members. Agency members: mainly 2 500 clubs registered with the association. Association members: refer to 57 local associations. Members of national sports organizations: nearly 30 national sports organizations, including the ncaa, the national association of state high schools, the American road running club association, and the American running association. In partnership with these organizations, the American track and field association successfully engages more than 30 million men, women, and children in fitness and running every year.

Since the IAAF started to promote the commercial operation of track and field in the 1990s, American track and field has been developing towards the direction of commercialization and marketization. Because of the high level of athletics in the United States, and because americans like to watch track and field events, sponsoring American athletics is a lucrative business. At present, the association has nearly 20 sponsors and partners, including some powerful companies, who provide financial support, goods support or professional and technical services to the association. Visa, in particular, has partnered with television stations every year since 2005 to sponsor and broadcast 10 of the nation's top track and field events by title. Today, the track and field events have become one of the most important events in the United States, drawing more than 8,000 people to many of them.

In 2008, iaaf received $7.87 million in funding from various sponsors and partners, and about $3.26 million in support from USOC, with a total revenue of $16.71 million and a financial surplus in spite of various expenses, which laid a good foundation for its operation in 2009.

Under the iaaf, there are 57 state-level local track and field associations that manage track and field clubs and events in their respective jurisdictions. Most local associations have jurisdictions that are exactly the same as those of their home states, but some cross state boundaries and some large states have several. Because of the high entry standards and limited size of national competitions, the iaaf also organizes regional competitions between national and local competitions to increase competition opportunities for elite athletes from all over the country. The 57 local associations are divided into three geographical regions according to the competition type: the geographical regions of the track and field open and the youth competition, including the four geographical regions of east, west, south and north. Each region includes 12 to 18 local associations. There are 16 geographic areas for junior track and field events, from geographic area 1 to geographic area 16. Each area includes 1 to 6 local associations. Cross-country and masters geographic areas, east, southeast, central and western, central, southwest, northwest, west and other seven geographical areas, each region including 7~11 local association.

According to the competition area division, the competition of the association system can be divided into three levels: national, regional and local competition. According to the age of athletes, the competitions at all levels can be divided into four types: open, youth, youth and masters. In the open, there is no age limit except the minimum age of 16 for men's distance running and 14 for men's and women's walking. Participants must be aged 14 or above and under 20. The competition is usually divided into 5 age groups: 9-10 years old, 11-12 years old, 13-14 years old, 15-16 years old and 17-18 years old. Masters track and field is for the middle-aged and elderly. Competitors must be at least 30 years old. In addition to outdoor and indoor track and field events, there are also special marathon, race walk, cross-country race, long-distance race or ultra-long-distance race. Currently, the American association of athletics federations approves more than 4, 000 RACES a year.

Outdoor junior track and field events are held from June to July each year. The whole process can be roughly divided into three stages. The first stage is the local youth Olympic track and field championships. Clubs and athletes in the area under the jurisdiction of the local association of athletics will take part in the competition according to the registration criteria. The second stage is the regional youth Olympic track and field championships. The winning clubs and athletes of each regional championship participate in the competition. The competition generally lasts for 2~4 days, and the ranking of each event in each age group is generated. The third stage consists of two national competitions. The first is the national junior athletic championships. About 4 weeks later, the second competition, the national junior Olympic track and field championships, was held. The entry standards for all age groups were significantly higher than the first competition, and more than 6,000 athletes participated. However, the competition was also completed within 6 days, resulting in the national ranking of all age groups. By 2008, the U.S. junior Olympic track and field championships had been held 42 times. In addition to participating in local, regional or national competitions according to the registration criteria, most clubs also participate in a small range of invitational, competitive and community competitions.

The 2,500 track and field clubs scattered throughout the United States are the basic training units of the iaaf system. Clubs are invested and operated by social forces and self-financing institutions. Athletes need to pay certain fees to join clubs and engage in competition training. According to the competition type of the association, the club members are also divided into three types: high-level, young people, masters and so on. In size, some clubs only 20 people, some up to 50~60 people. Most clubs are based on the venue facilities, coaches and other conditions to determine their own characteristics. For example, some clubs only carry out cross-country running and long-distance running training, some only carry out sprinting and jumping training, some give priority to throwing, and some even only carry out pole vault training. Because athletes mainly come from primary and secondary schools, the training of clubs is usually arranged after class in the afternoon, 3 to 4 times a week, 2 to 3 hours each time.

The iaaf has provided comprehensive, scientific and effective leadership and management of American athletics through the establishment of sound regulations and cooperation with nearly 30 national sports organizations. Each year, more than 700 athletes represent the United States in international and world track and field competitions. Track and field sports at all levels and among all groups are carried out in an all-round way. Every year, 30 million people take running as a means of keeping fit. "kingdom of track and field" has been endowed with a new connotation. Asa had big system is mutually independent, university and middle school, but dominated by asa had again, coordinate with each other and complement each other, combined with the education system is constructed, crisscross, layers of cohesion, and scientific and reasonable youth competition training center, for tens of thousands of athletes from children age began to participate in the long-term system of track and field training and gradually raise the level of technology has created a very favorable environment and conditions. Every year, more than one million children and teenagers take part in amateur track and field training in schools or clubs. There are a lot of outstanding young athletes emerging, laying a broad and solid talent foundation for American track and field to remain strong.

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