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Marx's theory of eastern society

2019-03-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Marx's theory of eastern society,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了马克思的东方社会理论。东方社会理论是相对于西方社会理论而言的。东方社会理论与西方社会理论不同,它主要以占全世界人口绝大多数和广大地区的东方世界为背景,是马克思关于东方社会的历史发展、现实社会状况及未来走向共产主义的理论。而亚细亚生产方式和俄国跨越“卡夫丁峡谷”的设想则构成了东方社会理论的主要内容。

eastern society,马克思东方社会理论,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

Marx's theory of Oriental society is under the historical background of relatively stable politics and economy of European capitalism and low tide of European revolution. Marx's theory of Oriental society reflects that Marx gradually gets rid of the influence of the thought of "world history" and studies the particularity of the development path of Oriental countries with diversified historical scales. It reflects the valuable innovative spirit and the inherent vitality of marxism that Marx never rigidly established his own theory. The study of Marx's eastern social theory not only helps us to grasp the true and complete picture of Marx's theory, but also provides us with the theoretical foundation to deeply understand and promote China's socialist modernization.

In this period, although Marx had already noticed the particularity of the development of eastern society, he believed that the development of eastern society was only a special stage of historical development and would eventually return to the general path of human society development due to the deep influence of Hegel's "world history" thought. The role of capitalism in human history is very important. As Marx vividly described in the communist manifesto, "the bourgeoisie, by opening up the world market, has made the production and consumption of all nations universal. ... It compels all nations, if they do not wish to perish, to adopt the bourgeois mode of production. Either the west or the east, whatever their reality, must take the road of capitalism, and then the transition to communism.

During this period, the Oriental Asian society broke out in revolution, and Marx began to turn his attention to the Oriental society, hoping to find a road leading to victory for the Oriental national liberation movement through in-depth study of the special nature, structure and development path of the Oriental society. At this stage, although Marx and Engels praised the national democratic liberation movement in the eastern society and denounced the brutal ACTS of the British colonial invaders, they still affirmed the impact of the British invasion on the feudal social system in the east. Because, capitalist advanced mode of production broke Oriental backward nation to close oneself to the outside world and isolated condition, promote the development of productivity of Oriental country objectively.

On the one hand, with the failure of the Paris commune, the capitalist society entered a period of relative economic and political stability, and the European revolution turned into a low tide. , on the other hand, the European and American scholars on prehistoric human society and the significant progress has been made in research in the form of a capitalist society, published some valuable works, Marx applied historical materialism scientifically analyzed the achievements, deepened his understanding of the Oriental society, realize the Oriental society can walk is different from the west road of development. Marx in his letter to the motherland chronicle magazine editorial had this argument: "he must see me about the historical account of the origin of capitalism in Western Europe thoroughly into the theory of historical philosophy of a general development path, all ethnic groups, regardless of their historical environment, are doomed to walk this path, - in order to eventually achieve the guarantee of the development of social labor productivity is extremely again at the same time ensure each producer with the most comprehensive development of such a kind of economic form. But I will ask his pardon. In doing so, he will give me too much honor, but also give me too much insult. This passage reflects that Marx has realized that according to the "general philosophy of history" not only can not grasp the different social phenomena produced in different historical environments, but also can not predict the different results of the evolution of eastern social forms.

Eastern social theory is relative to western social theory. The theory of western society is based on the background of Britain, France and Germany. It is the result of Marx's in-depth study of the politics, economy and culture of the three countries. Western social theory is a systematic and comprehensive theoretical elaboration made by Marx after studying the objective laws of the historical development of human society. Different from this theory, the eastern social theory is mainly based on the eastern world, which accounts for the vast majority of the world's population and vast areas, especially India, Russia and China. It is Marx's theory on the historical development of the eastern society, the realistic social situation and the future of communism. Karl Marx's Oriental society theory although there is no so many academic works on western social theory, appear only in India, Russia, China three east articles, communications as well as the notes of anthropology, but the study of Marx's Oriental society eventually become an important part of the scientific socialism theory, become the reasonable existence and development of the socialist society theory origin. The Asian mode of production and Russia's assumption of crossing the "kafudin gorge" constitute the main content of the eastern social theory.

As for the original form of human society, many western scholars believe that it is private ownership. So capitalist private ownership is the reversion of human society. Marx thinks, the primitive configuration of human society is public ownership. In the German ideology, he believed that "the first form of ownership in human society is tribal ownership". In the primitive society, people formed tribes according to their blood relationship, hunting together, distributing products equally, and there was no concept of private ownership. With the emergence of social division of labor and surplus products, private ownership came into being. However, without sufficient materials as the basis, Marx could only draw inspiration from the study of various economic forms of pre-capitalism, especially the Asian mode of production prevalent in the eastern society, that is, to find the basic characteristics of the original form of human society from the public ownership of land in the eastern society. Restricted by the historical conditions and scientific level at that time, early Marx mistakenly regarded the Asiatic mode of production as the original form of human society and the starting point of the historical development of human society. This is Marx's enthymemes based on the theoretical achievements of the time. With the development of practice, Marx found that the mode of production in Asia could not reveal the characteristics of various aspects of the original form of human society. In the mode of production in Asia, public ownership of land, rural commune and autocratic state form a trinity, while the original form of human society is classless, state-free and private-owned. Therefore, the Asian mode of production is a transitional form formed between the primitive commune and the existing rural commune, which is not a typical form of prehistoric society. As for why there exists public ownership of land in eastern countries, Engels once pointed out that it has something to do with the climate and soil of eastern countries. Due to the vast territory, irrigation and other large-scale agricultural activities can only be completed by the government, so the eastern countries ruled out the possibility of private ownership of land. In this way, authoritarian states were formed. Village community system exists in India and rural communes are owned in Russia. In this way, the eastern society has the characteristics of public land, rural commune and autocratic state. The characteristics of the eastern society show that it has its own unique development path in history. However, according to Marx's early "world history" thought, although the eastern society has its particularity, it must go through the development stage of capitalism like the western countries before it can transition to communism. Therefore, Marx must get rid of the shackles of the "europe-centered theory" and the thought of the general law of the development of human society in order to construct a correct view of the eastern society.

In 1877, Marx wrote a letter to the editorial board of the chronicle of the motherland in which he first systematically discussed the development of Russian society. When he clarify some issues about: "chernychevsky in several excellent article studied the question: Russia is should be like a liberal economists had hoped that first destroy the rural commune to transition to a capitalist system, or on the contrary, Russia can in the development of its unique historical conditions of capitalist system all the results at the same time, and can not withstand the sufferings of the capitalist system. Mihalovsky expressed his support for the latter solution, "and Marx agreed with mihalovsky on this issue." "I have come to the conclusion that if Russia continues on the path it began in 1861, it will lose the best opportunity that history has to offer a nation and suffer all the disastrous twists and turns that capitalism has brought about." The implication is that the Russian people can make full use of the conditions given to them by history and avoid the disaster caused by the primitive accumulation of capitalism. These discussions not only show that Marx thinks that Russia has the factors that do not experience the stage of capitalist development, but also reflect Marx's materialist view of history. People can give play to their subjective initiative and choose different stages of development.

In the first paragraph of Marx's 1881 first draft of his reply to the Russian revolutionary zasullich, he wrote, "the whole process is based on the deprivation of the peasants. Only in Britain has this deprivation been fully achieved... But all the other countries of Western Europe are experiencing the same movement. "" I have explicitly limited the 'historical inevitability' of this movement to the countries of Western Europe. Marx had realized that the establishment of bourgeois revolution and capitalist mode of production was only completed in Europe, and that the eastern countries did not necessarily follow the capitalist road.

"In Russia, owing to the unique combination of various circumstances, the rural communes, which still exist throughout the country, have been able to gradually shed their original characteristics and develop directly as factors of collective production throughout the country. Because it coexists with capitalist production, it is able to absorb all its positive results without suffering the terrible twists and turns of capitalist production. "From a historical point of view, one of the reasons for preserving the commune through the further development of the 'rural commune' is that: moreover, it survived a period when the capitalist system had not been touched; On the contrary, whether in Western Europe or in the United States, the capitalist system is in a state of conflict with the working people, with science, and even with the productive forces it produces. In short, in front of the Russian commune, the capitalist system is experiencing a crisis, which can only end with the extinction of capitalism and the return of modern society to the 'ancient' type of collective ownership and the advanced form of collective production. In his rebuttal to the admirers of the Russian capitalist system, Marx said, "then I would like to ask them this question: in order to adopt machinery, ships, railways and so on, must Russia, like the west, first go through a long period of incubation of the machine industry? And ask them to explain to me: how can they import into their own country a whole set of exchange institutions that the west has taken centuries to establish? That is to say, the existence of rural communes made it possible for Russia to directly transition to communism. Rural commune and capitalist production coexist, so it can absorb all the positive results of capitalism and avoid the disaster of capitalism; Capitalist system exists crisis, private ownership will eventually die out, the correct development of the Russian commune can make Russia directly into communism.

The dual nature of the rural commune can endows it with strong vitality, which may also become the root of the disintegration of the commune. "Or it contains the triumph of the private over the collective, or of the latter over the former. A priori, both outcomes are possible, but for either, it is clear that a completely different historical context is required. It all depends on its historical context. The historical environment is very important, which is related to the future development direction of Russia. Therefore, we should seize the opportunity to promote the rural commune to the direction of the transition to communism.

"Russia is the only country in Europe that has preserved agricultural communes on a national scale to the present day. It was not the prey of foreign conquerors, like the east Indies. Nor is it isolated from the modern world. On the one hand, public ownership of land makes it possible to directly and gradually transform small plots of land from individual farming to collective farming, and Russian farmers already practice collective farming on undistributed grasslands. The natural topography of the Russian soil is suitable for large-scale use of machinery. Farmers are accustomed to the labor combination, which helps them transition from small land economy to cooperative labor. Finally, Russian society, which had long depended on the peasantry for its subsistence, was obliged to make the necessary advances towards this transition. On the other hand, the coexistence of western production, which controlled world markets, enabled Russia to apply all the positive results of the capitalist system to the commune without going through the kafudin gorge of the capitalist system. In this way, through the analysis of the public ownership of land in Russian rural communes and the conditions and characteristics of The Times, Marx came to the assumption that Russia could bypass the capitalist "kafudin gorge".

"To save the Russian commune, there must be a Russian revolution. Moreover, the government and the new pillars of society are doing everything possible to prepare the masses for this scourge. If the revolution took place at the right moment, if it could concentrate all its forces in order to ensure the free development of the rural communes, then the rural communes would quickly become factors of new Russian society, factors superior to those of other countries still under the yoke of the capitalist system. It is not necessary to take all factors to extremes. Socialism will triumph in the Russian revolution as long as certain subjective and objective conditions are met.

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