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北美作业代写:Lessing civic drama theory

2018-09-12 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Lessing civic drama theory,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了莱辛的市民剧理论。莱辛是德国启蒙运动中最富于革命精神的代表之一,他是德国著名的戏剧家、文学家、美学家。与欧洲其他启蒙运动思想家相比,莱辛主张从平民的方式摧毁封建关系,提出创立与古典主义戏剧根本不同的新戏剧,并提倡市民剧应自然地、真实地反映现实的社会生活,特别是反映广大市民阶级的社会生活,从而开辟出一条新的道路。


From the ancient Greek and Roman times to the 17th and 18th centuries, the European dramas have been described almost by the gods chi, the imperial general. When he arrived at lessing, he advocated destroying the feudal relationship from the way of the common people, proposed the creation of a new drama fundamentally different from the classical drama, and advocated that the civic drama should naturally and truly reflect the real social life, especially the social life of the broad class of citizens, thus opening up a new road.

Lessing is one of the most revolutionary representatives of the German enlightenment. He is a famous German dramatist, writer and aesthetician. Compared with other European enlightenment thinkers, lessing deeply comprehended the essence of western literary creation and aesthetic theory since Aristotle, explained the social responsibility and historical mission of literature, and enhanced the sense of social responsibility and historical mission.

European drama originated from the ancient Greek and Roman drama. The ancient Greek tragedy generally pursues the rigor and integrity of the structure and form. Later, the classical drama put forward the principle of "three uniformity". At that time, Aristotle's poetics achieved the highest level of achievement, and lessing explained the formation and significance of the poetics and its influence on his theory of drama in his review of the Hamburg drama. The reason why I did not fall into error and misunderstand the nature of dramatic art was that I understood it in exactly the way that Aristotle had concluded from the multitude of excellent works on the Greek stage. I regard poetics as a reliable work, as reliable as Euclid's theorem." By the middle ages, classical drama had disappeared and religious and urban drama had risen. The emergence and prosperity of urban drama, which has laid a solid foundation for the development of drama in the later Renaissance, was emphasized in many scripts.

During the Renaissance, the "three uniformity" was also firmly established in Italy and attracted the attention of many theorists for a long time. "Court interest" plays an important role in the classical drama, which has become an important feature of the classical drama. In France, the enlightenment drama was developed in the arduous struggle against classicism. According to the requirements of history, diderot proposed the program of building civic drama and serious drama, and participated in the creation and practice, and vigorously promoted his drama theory, thus opening the way for the bourgeois to occupy the stage of drama. This not only in the development history of French drama theory, but also in the development history of the whole world drama marked that drama has entered a new stage. The reformer gottschall, who despaired of vulgar but easily gratifying improvisations centered on cheap clowning, was the first to advocate dramatic reform. But due to the pressure of The Times, his wish did not come true. At this time, the emergence of lessing, the German drama into a new stage.

"Lessing's entire theory is based on a critique of classicism, drawing conclusions from debate. In the theory of drama, classicism confined the ideals of "silence", "sublime" and "greatness" to the aristocracy, while the civic class was in a situation of derision in the drama of classicism, which was determined by the class attribute represented by classicism. ...... Through the negation of the court figures in the classical drama, lessing further negated the palace lifestyle of the classical drama, which is also the most revolutionary essence of his drama theory. His critique of classicism was most pronounced against corneille, who was a typical representative of the German dramatists in the middle of the eighteenth century. Lessing, as a representative of the civil class, opposed this view, arguing that gaunaire had completely misinterpreted Aristotle's definition of tragedy. Lessing's "Hamburg drama review" is totally critical of the form of French classicism tragedy. He does not limit the theme, "unlike the classicists who mechanically let emperors and heroes into tragedy and citizens into comedy. He said: Kings and heroes can make a play seem magnificent and heroic, but they can't make it move people. Those who are in a similar situation unfortunately must be able to strike the deepest of our souls.

In addition, he devoted himself to criticizing French neoclassicism's view of the triad in his review of the drama of Hamburg. After considering voltaire's misinterpretation of the third rule, there is no common sense in his plays. Lessing also emphasize the rationality of the drama, logical, "the genius of the author only describes interrelated events, connecting all kinds of motive and effect chain, make the latter to the former photograph echo, to balance, both before and after the everywhere out contingency, the events that occurred only in this way, and can not be otherwise, this is the genius to put memory scrap into a spiritual nutrition when reclaiming history fields of work to do." By the 1770s, the German drama production began to have a Shakespeare fever, and the re-heating of Shakespeare in the 1700s had a great influence on many dramatists at that time. Lessing has praised Shakespeare, saying his work is above everything else.

The German enlightenment was entirely of the citizen class, which was an important period of the development of German literature, and the enlightenment drama was an important content of this period, while the enlightenment drama represented by lessing was the most important stage of the development of the enlightenment drama. One of the purposes of the enlightenment is to reach the state of perfection of human nature. Therefore, lessing's plays highlight and emphasize that human beings are the common aspirations of all the enlightenment people, and through the plays can fan the hatred of the rulers of the civic class to achieve the purpose of promoting political freedom and social equality.

The purpose of lessing drama is to influence people. "Comedy is improved by laughter, but not by ridicule," he said at the beginning of title 29. It is neither a bad habit to make people laugh by comedy, nor a bad habit to make them see themselves. Its true and universal benefit lies in the laughter itself; It's about training us to find something funny; In the mask of passion and fashion, in the nature of evil or good, and even in solemnity, it is easy and quick to find the ridiculous. It should be admitted that even moliere's miser never improved a miser. Rayard's the gambler never improved a gambler; To say the least, even if laughter doesn't improve these fools or even hurt them, it doesn't hurt comedy. If comedy can't cure those terminal illnesses and keep healthy people healthy, that's enough."


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