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Positivism on gas pipeline construction

2019-12-27 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Positivism on gas pipeline construction,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了关于燃气管道建设的实证主义。实证主义认识论认为,通过中立、独立、客观的研究者的观察和记录,我们对社会世界的理解与我们对物质世界的理解是一样的。在实证主义范式的应用中,我们注意到,在考虑天然气管道的影响时,政策制定者还考虑了其他方面的累积影响。燃气管道建设选址的选择,体现了政策制定者在考虑不同现象之间长期存在的因果关系时的智慧。此外,在考虑是否应该有一条从阿拉斯加通过加拿大重要地区运送能源的走廊时,我们还必须考虑它应该走哪条路线以及什么时候应该建立这条走廊,实证主义范式不局限于这一管道探究的上述两个方面,主要表现在对其建筑位置和时间的最终决策上,即我们将社会事实(建筑管道)视为与物质世界一样受社会法则约束的事实。此外,在确定其建筑位置时,还考虑了燃气管道建设与其他社会方面之间的潜在因果关系。

Positivist ontology states that there is an objective world that exists independently from human perception. The social world is constructed by universal laws in the same way as the physical world is shaped. Another belief that positivists hold is that the causal relationships between phenomena constitute reality and this cause-and-effect relationships can be grasped by empirical evidences of its existence. Empirical observation will produce an accurate or close to accurate picture of reality.

Positivist epistemology believe that our understanding of social world goes in the same way as our understanding of physical world, via observation and recording of observations by a neutral, independent, and objective researcher. Knowledge of social world is based on scientific observation to determine causal relationships between phenomena. Therefore, in positivist approach of understanding the world, an objective, unprejudiced researcher and observer plays a dominant role in that they have to remain an open-minded and neutral attitude to ensure objectivity. On the other hand, collectivity, the scientific community as whole guarantees objectivity through criticism of each other’ work, efforts to refute findings.

In application of positivist paradigm to a specific case of Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry, we notice that in considering the effects of a gas pipeline, the policy maker also takes into account cumulative impact from other aspect, for instance, its influence to other transportation system like an oil line. We will describe detailed evidences that the researchers use in building this pipeline.

First of all, the choice of the construction location of the gas pipeline demonstrates the policy makers’ wisdom in considering long-standing causal relationships between different phenomenon. Because if a gas pipeline is built along with the Mackenzie Valley, there is a high possibility that a oil pipeline will also be built. Even though discoveries of oil does not reach the threshold today, but in future with the advance of technology, it could be exploited. This insight about the potential relationship between an oil pipeline and a gas pipeline shows that in making a decision about a construction, one at least should examine the effects from other variables which may exerts influence in the whole program.

Furthermore, in considering whether there should be a corridor to carry energy resources from Alaska through the vital area of Canada, we also have to consider what route it should follow and when it should be established. Because Unites States shows great interest into this pipeline, we also have to consider potential international relationships between these two governments based on given facts about geological knowledge of these two countries and predication made about future plan of other energy pipelines.

In sum, not limited to the two above aspects about this pipeline inquiry, positivist paradigm largely manifests itself in making the final decision about its building location and time in that we regard a social fact (building pipelines) as bound by social laws in the same way as physical world. In addition, the potential causal relations between the building of a gas pipeline and other social aspects is also taken into consideration when deciding for its building location.

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