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美国作业代写:Water Management in Melbourne

2017-06-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

本文是一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Water Management in Melbourne,供大家赏析学习,这篇论文讨论了墨尔本的水资源管理。水是生命之源,人体缺水三天就会死亡,所以水资源对于大家来说非常重要。而墨尔本的水资源只能供人们使用15年,而墨尔本缺水的原因有很多,一是因为人口的增长,二是因为水资源的污染。所以现在墨尔本要做的就是寻找新的水资源和妥善处理废水。

Water Management,水资源,留学生作业代写,paper代写,澳洲代写


Water plays an important ole of human’s life, roughly 70% of an adult’s body is made up of water and man cannot survive without water in 3 days. It is obviously clear that water is one of the most important elements for life on earth. As Australia is one of the driest continents in the world, water is a vital resource for Australia’s present and future prosperity. Nowadays, in city like Melbourne, with the rapid population growth and sharply reduced catchment inflows across Australia, how can the city’s water supply system do to meet the citizen’s needs? In this paper I simply analyzed the current situation and put forward viable solutions to deal with water shortage.

1. Introduction

1.1 Case Background

Melbourne is the second largest city in Australia and has a multicultural and diverse population. According to ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics), in 2014-15, the population in Melbourne has reached 4.5millions, grew by 2.1 per cent, down slightly from 2.2 per cent last year, but still the highest area in Australian .Due to “Melbourne Water”, the average water use of per person per day is 177 liters1.By 26 March 2016, the Dam storage Level was 60.2% full (see Fig 1).

1.2 Problem Statement

The river inflows reduced sharply, leading to water restriction in Australia, which includes domestic use water, Industrial water, and the storage of water , Climate change and the rapid population growth are imposing additional pressure on water shortage.

1.3 Aims/Purposes

(1). Ensure the use of domestic water .

(2). Ensure the water use in industry.

(3). Adequate and stable water storage.

2. Analysis of Major Issues

2.1 Major Issues and Context

In last year,401gigalitres water was used in Melbourne, 65 %( about 259 gigalitres) was used for as domestic water, 25% of the water was used for factories, businesses, schools, hospital and parks and some other public spaces, it shows that residential use consist a large part of water use, as the result of population growth, in the meanwhile, People’s environmental awareness haven’t been improved, water pollution is another severe problem, despite great effort made to clean up Yarra valley, high levels of pollution still flowing into river-largely as a result of urban development instead of industrial run-off [1]. In 2001,the Environment Authority warned beachgoers do not to swim at some most popular bayside beaches of Melbourne and rated those beaches “fair”.


2.2.1Contributing Factors

The cause of water short age can be divide into two aspects: man-made factor and natural factor. As we discussed above, nearly 60% water was used as domestic water, and the per capita water consumption is 1 million liters per year, far more than the Worlds average level. Every year, millionsgigalitres of water was polluted in Yarra river even though industrial Pollution has no longer pours into the river. Instead, it is the proliferation of hard surfaces from storm water drains, development and roads surrounding the river that now provide

Fig.1. The Dam water storage by 26March 2016. much of the pollution [2]. Population growth is another vital factor when it comes to water shortage issues. Comparing with the large shortage in Austria, however, the annual mean precipitation in Austria is merely around 494mm , far be low the World’s average level (746mm), besides, Melbourne’s rainfall and stream flow and highly erodible soils combined to create the naturally high turbidity levels in waters, making the surface water unsuitable for people to drink. In recent years,extensive drought struck Austria’s economic,which forced city like Sydney, Melbourne to carry out the water-limited policy.

2.2.2 Foreseeable Implications

The Victorian government has showed concern that effects of population growth and effect of climate change on water supplies, along with the traditional problem of variable runoff into water shortage, could mean Melbourne will be approaching its supply limits within 15 years [3]. The lack of water may result in the problem to public health, living standard and output for food production, the growth of industry needs great qualities of water to secure its normal functioning, which prevents efficient capital accumulation, inthe meanwhile, do harm to well-being and economic growth.

2.3 Summary of Analysis Outcomes

In conclusion, water shortage has effect the proper operation of Melbourne and slow down the development pace of city, clean water is needed to maintain the balance of city, so it’s argent to find new solution to dispose the waste water and seek new water resource in Melbourne. Similarly, how to reduce water pollution and control the population growth can be as vital as to handle the water issue.

3.Possible solutions

3.1 Building up Reservoir and collect-ing rainwater.

There’s 6 on-stream reservoirs (see Fig.2) in

Melbourne, the on-stream was supplied by water catchment, building up reservoir could restore more water when the rainy month and summer come, and release it to off-stream reservoirs to supply the water use. But every coin has two sides, the environmental impact of reservoirs cannot be ignored. The habitat of endanger will be drowned, and people live around the reservoir have to evacuate from the area. It is unfriendly both for human and nature.

Another possible mean is to collect rainwater. The rainwater collection can be divide into two types. Pattern 1 is collect rainwater on the spot. Forming an artificial wetland, then discharge into river after precipitate and assimilated by plants. The other pattern, on the contrary, restore the disposed water and discharge into river when the dry season come. This mean is friendly to nature and human, but given that Austria has low rainfall, it is not effective enough to solve the severe water shortage.

3.2 sewage disposal.

As I presented above, domestic water takes up a large part in the water use, the disposed water can be used in industrial production. As far as I know, the Hydropower plant near Melbourne has adopted disposed waste water for power generation. While the equipment is expensive but in a long term, it is worth the investment.

3.3 Desalination

In 2007, the Victorian government released a $4.9 billion to secure the water supplies in Melbourne, it included a 150GL/pa desalination plant, located at Wonthaggi 85 km from Melbourne. Facing the Pacific Ocean, Melbourne has abundant seawater resource ,desalinated water is a liberating opportunity for industrial, metropolitan, domestic and agricultural business. Desalination brings new benefits from trading, bringing economic system into water trading and raising the water price probably reduced the risk of water shortage.

4. Recommendations

Desalination has lower long-term average costs than a reliance on dams, reservoir, rainfall depended systems, the great feature of expanding desalination capacity relative to dams is that desalination provides a buffer of augmentable size, with two-year plus construction periods. [4], with relatively affordable desalination, water demands and security needs can be met as the population and

Fig.2. six on-stream reservoirs in Melbourne. economy expand.

5. Conclusion

Water plays a vital role in Melbourne’s economic growth but Melbourne has suffer from water restriction in the beginning of 21st century as the result of climate change and rapid population growth , in this case, finding the new source and regulate the flow from time to time become more important, we analysed that people haven’t gain environmental awareness and large part of water was wasted ,apart from this, water pollution add the difficulty to maintain water quality and government has to spend millions to Handle such problems. It’s reasonable for government to use the economic system to balance the financial and water issues.

Comparing with other different kinds of means and considering the abundant seawater resource, desalination has the lowest average cost, it delivers an extended capacity to ride through the increased rainfall Instability, the damage that reservoir brings to the near-by area, Furthermore, the consequences of any climate change would be better solved by desalination. Since 2007, the government of Victoria has invested billions of money in desalination equipment, we can see the visible benefits from desalination as time goes by.


[1] Clay Lucas, Yarra River: still badly polluted despite decades of talk about cleaning it up, The Age, 2015.  Available from:   http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/yarra-river-still-badly-polluted-despite-decades-of-talk-about-cleaning-it-up-20150316-1m0dha.html (accessed 26 April 27, 2016).

[2]Environment Victoria, Yarra River health Concerns, Environment Victoria, 2015. Available from:http://environmentvictoria.org.au/media/yarra-river-health-concerns. (accessed 26 April 27, 2016).

[3]Victorian Government (2004), Securing Our Water Future Together. White Paper, Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, JUNE.

[4] Michael G. Porter, David Downie, Helen Scarborough, Oz Sahin & Rodney A.Stewart, “Drought and Desalination: Melbourne water supply and development choices in the twenty-firstcentury,” Desalination and water treatment, vol. ED-55, pp. 2278-2295, Aug. 2015.


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