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Discussion and Assessing of ways to improve motivation

2019-07-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Discussion and Assessing of ways to improve motivation,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了提高动机的方法。动机的定义是一个过程,说明个人的强度,方向和持久的努力,以达到一个目标。在现代组织的背景下,提高员工的积极性,那么生产力也会提高。这种改进无疑对组织本身是有益的。雇主需要做的是了解员工的个人需求,并根据他们的目标和需求使用不同的策略来激励他们。在现代企业组织中,人们提出了许多提高员工工作积极性的方法。

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Discuss and assess ways of improving motivation of the staffs in the workplace

Motivation is defined as the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward the attainment of a goal. In the context of modern’s organizations, improving employees’ motivation results in improvement on their effort, persistence, and productivity. Such improvement is without doubt beneficial for the organization itself. What employers need to do is to understand their employee’s need as an individual, and used different tactics to motivate them based on their goal and needs. Many ways of improving motivation of staffs in the workplace have been suggested and implemented in modern business organization.

All approaches could be categorized into roughly seven types, including positive reinforcement, punishment, treating people fairly, satisfying employees’ need, setting work related goals, job-reconstruction, and job performance based reward (Ganta, 2014). In the next several paragraphs, I will be discussing and assessing several common workplace motivation improvement.

Positive reinforcement or high expectation is the practice of giving recognition and encouragement to employees who put effort to complete a decent job performance. In sharp contrast to the positive reinforcement and high expectation, punishment or negative reinforcement is another common treatment in the workplace. Employers, who rely on negative reinforcement, will also criticize and point out the mistakes that the employees make. Even more, punishment can be extrinsic such as a decrease on salary.

Although positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement are two completely different ways to treat employees, they both have their own pro and cons. It’s generally believed that positive reinforcement may make one feel much more supported and valued, inspiring them to be much more enthusiastic and productive about work, but negative reinforcement leads to employees’ lose of enthusiasm and doubt in their ability. Imagine a scenario where an employee has constantly been criticized by her/ his boss, he or her might lose enthusiasm of work, being self-doubting. In modern society, positive reinforcement in the workplace is given much more concert and credit than the negative reinforcement in the workplace. Supporting by different theory, they both make sense to certain types of workers. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs divided needs into two categories: the higher-order needs including social, esteem and self-actualization which are satisfied internally, and lower order needs consisting of safety and physiology, which are satisfied externally. Positive reinforcement will works for employees who seek for higher-order needs that are satisfied internally. People who have higher-order needs seek internal satisfaction from workplace such as: social interaction with other, esteem from co-workers and employers, and self-actualization. Positive reinforcement may help one to get closer to satisfy these internal needs by offering encouragement and recognition. However, positive reinforcement may not be effective for workers who are struggle to satisfied their lower-order needs. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Lower-order needs are defined as needs that are satisfied by external condition, including safety need and physiological need. For example, workers who get paid below minimum wage and struggle with satisfying physiological needs will not be motivated by merely supervisors’ recognition and encouragement. They have to satisfy their lower level needs first, and then move to the next higher level.

 According to Douglas McGregor’s Theory X, managers assume all workers as having little ambition, disliking work and avoiding responsibility. The assumptions of Theory X may be appropriate in some situation. In reality, there are workers who are irresponsible or unenthusiastic or ambitionless. Negative reinforcement or punishment in the workplace can be a solution to motive such type of workers. In despite of their own passive attitude toward working, they will be motivated to performance better in the workplace out of the fear of being punished.

Managers can also work with their employees in an individual consideration approach, which offers a personalized, development-orientation attention. Such approach demands managers to view each employee as an individual and get to know about their career goal. Based on the Two-Factory Theory, an approach to motivate people offers employees a way to grow in their own career path so it is an intrinsic motivator. Such positive development-based approach, offering career couch to employee seems to be appealing to the Millennials. (Gregory,Siegfried &Yancey, 2012) This generation has a strong sense of entitlement. (Deal, 2011) Because of such characteristic, a coaching approach to manage is believed to result in successful motivation and persistence of Millennials.

Setting an effective discipline is another way to motivate employees through building up a better working environment. Setting an effective discipline will require a lot of action including treating every employee in the same manner, notifying employees of organization policies and reasonable reward and punishment, etc.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory can provide an explanation for why an effective discipline helps to improve motivation. Herzberg's (1966) motivator-hygiene theory divides motivating factors into two categories: Motivator factors, which are related to the work itself; Hygiene factors, which are related to the surrounding context. Building up an effective discipline can help to improve employees’ feeling for their work conditions, moderating one of the dissatisfactions.

Discussion of the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

Motivation that comes form things or factors outside the individual is defined as extrinsic motivation. In other word, extrinsic motivation will be expected to bring improvement to the outside world. Intrinsic motivation, on the other hand, is motivation that comes from within. It generates from our mind. A sense of accomplishment, self-actualization and enthusiasm for work are all different types of intrinsic motivation.

When I used to work in Starbucks in China for a few months because of my interest in coffee industry. What’s more, I found the process of making coffee itself very fulfilling. The wage paid in Starbucks was not very satisfying, but I was supported by my family, so I do not necessarily need to worry about basic physiological need and salary. What drove me to work there is my enthusiasm for coffee making and a sense of achievement. In this case, I have an intrinsic motivation, which is loving work for itself. Some other colleagues who have been working in Starbucks for a few years have very different motivation. Their primary goal is to seek for a promotion. Such type of incentive is an extrinsic motivation. It can also be interpreted as a need for achievement and a need for power.

Bliliography

Deal, J. J., Altman, D. G., & Rogelberg, S. G. (2010). Millennials at work: What we know and what we need to do (if anything). Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 191–199.

Ganta, V. C. (2014). Motivation in the workplace to improve the employee performance. International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences, 2(6), Issn 2349-4476.

Thompson, C., Gregory, J., Siegfried, W., & Yancey, G. (2012). Managing Millennials: A Framework for Improving Attraction, Motivation, and Retention. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 15(4), 237–246. doi:10.1080/10887156.2012.730444.

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