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America's product quality and safety regulatory system

2019-01-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- America's product quality and safety regulatory system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的产品质量安全监管体系。美国作为全球最大的经济体,其政府部门监管的产品数量庞大、种类繁多,但其监管的效果却明显优于众多的发展中国家,这一现象说明美国有着一套运行有效的产品质量安全监管体系。美国的产品质量监管机构的职责非常明确,他们监管的是产品质量安全,其核心职责就是保护消费者的安全。在美国,产品质量监管机构监管的仅是涉及人身安全及环境保护的产品质量,而将一般性的产品质量问题全部交给市场来解决。

product quality and safety,美国的产品质量安全,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The concept of supervision is the basis of product quality and safety supervision. The maturity of the concept directly determines the efficiency of supervision. The concept of product quality and safety supervision in the United States has the following characteristics:

All the policies and measures of product quality supervision in the United States are centered around the core of consumers, regardless of the starting point, process and result of supervision. The starting point of product quality supervision in the United States is to protect the safety of consumers. In the process of supervision, the role of consumers is emphasized, and the results of supervision focus on timely and convenient feedback to consumers. Consumer product safety commission, for example, it has established the purpose is to protect consumers' personal safety, on its official website home page prominently place set up an unsafe product information report window, every consumer can easily they learned that unsafe products information of the input, the CPSC to analyze this information, audit, summary after its release on the website, and establish the consumer product safety information database, query for the vast number of consumers.

In the supervision of product quality, the regulatory authorities in the United States pay attention to the organic combination of regulatory activities and market competition and give full play to the role of the market. In this way, the initiative of the market is not only brought into play, but more importantly, the government is liberated and the pressure and cost of administrative supervision are reduced. Currently in the United States, for example, certification and accreditation of conformity assessment activities are carried out by market mechanism, these institutions have a large number of experts, its work includes factory acceptance, sample collection and analysis, monitoring the import products, check the pre-sale and consumer behavior, is engaged in the consumer research training, education and so on, these market institutions involved in greatly improving the effectiveness of government regulation.

The U.S. government has promulgated a series of laws to ensure the fairness, fairness and consistency of product quality supervision and guarantee the personal and property safety of consumers. These laws on product quality supervision and control have formed a complete system, which mainly has the following two characteristics:

Related to the quality of the products of the laws declared by the U.S. government, both for all products, such as the mark YouXun - Moses guarantee law and so on, the product liability act also have only applies to certain products, such as the national traffic and motor vehicle safety "the federal food, drug and cosmetic act" poultry products inspection "the federal meat inspection" the egg products inspection "the federal insecticide, fungicide and rodenticide act, and so on. The law generally applicable to all products manufacturer and the responsibility of the seller, the rights of consumers, regulatory responsibilities, arbitration rules, etc., and is suitable for the law of a kind of product has the very strong pertinence, these laws covering almost at the same time consumers have access to all of the products, make every kind of product quality and safety supervision are laws. The legal system thus constituted is comprehensive and specific, which provides guarantee for the supervision of product quality and safety.

The laws on product quality and safety supervision in the United States have strong operability. These laws generally make detailed provisions on the authority of relevant regulatory agencies, the formulation procedures of mandatory requirements on product quality and safety, the regulatory procedures of agencies, and the arbitration rules on product quality and safety accidents. Taking the consumer goods safety act as an example, the act has made detailed provisions on the scope of the act, the personnel allocation and qualification of the executive subject, the responsibilities and rights of the consumer goods safety commission, the procedures and principles for formulating consumer goods safety regulations, and the legal responsibilities for violating this law. , for example, the law in the regulation committee can "consumer product safety standards promulgated" at the same time, also for consumer product safety committee standard procedure detailed provisions, including to release the advance notice of standards, standards of the public and the preliminary analysis, the promulgation of the standard and dissent, effect, standard of modification and cancellation, etc. The bill even details how the maximum penalty for breaching the law should be adjusted for inflation.

The United States has numerous product quality and safety regulators, such as the food and drug administration, the consumer product safety commission, the food safety inspection agency, the environmental protection agency, and the federal trade commission. These regulators have the following characteristics: the product quality regulators in the United States have clear responsibilities. They only supervise product quality and safety, and their core responsibility is to protect the safety of consumers. In the United States, product quality regulators only regulate the quality of products related to personal safety and environmental protection, and leave all general product quality problems to the market to solve. Once found in the regulatory problems involved in the quality and safety of products on the market, will require companies to immediately stop sales and a variety of ways to inform consumers problems hidden trouble in security products, also with strong means to ensure that enterprises implement repair, replace or recall, to maximize the harm to the consumers get rid of the problem products, and would not consider doing so brings to the enterprise loss. Although the United States has many product quality and safety supervision departments, the division of labor of these agencies is very clear, and the scope of products they are responsible for supervision is basically determined in the form of law. For example, the food and drug administration is responsible for much of the food and drug safety supervision, but the meat, poultry, eggs product safety regulation mainly belongs to the agriculture department's food safety inspection department is responsible for, in more than 7% of alc drinks to the Treasury Department's bureau of tobacco and alcohol tax trade management, rather than the regulation of bottled drinking water belong to the environmental protection department is responsible for. In addition, the scope of supervision of these regulators is only related to the category of products. A product from "cradle" to "grave" will only correspond to one regulator, whether the product is in the production field or in the circulation field, and whether it is imported or domestic. The advantage of this division is that the scope of supervision of the regulatory agencies is clear, there is no overlapping co-management, there will be no prevarication.

Standards are the basis of product quality and safety supervision. The level of standards and the speed of their update will directly determine the quality and safety of products in the market. The United States is the world's leading standard, and product quality and safety formed a strong binding force, mainly due to its open and flexible standards system.

In most countries in the world, the standard setting work is dominated by government departments or government-related standard institutions, while in the United States, the standard setting work is mainly undertaken by social organizations. By 2012, there are about 600 social organizations in the United States to develop standards, among which the largest 20 standards organizations have developed 90% of the standards in the United States, including the international organization of American society for materials and testing, the institute of electrical and electronic engineers, underwriters laboratories and other world-renowned authorities. The members of these organizations are mainly enterprises, industry associations, experts and scholars, consumers, etc. Compared with government departments, these members are more professional and have a better understanding of the forefront and development trends of the industry, which ensures the rigor and foresight of standards.

In the United States, some government agencies also set standards, but more often, government agencies directly refer to the voluntary standards made by social organizations when making regulations, and make these voluntary standards mandatory by giving them legal effect. The agency's approach, derived from the office of management and budget's announcement that "the federal government and its enforcement agencies set their own standards only when voluntary standards are absent or do not apply," has the advantage of effectively using social resources and saving administrative costs.

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