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The development of the British foundation degree

2019-01-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The development of the British foundation degree,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国基础学位的发展。在英国大部分地区,基础学位都是可以使用的,它让学生掌握劳动力市场所需特别技能的短期高等教育学位制度,具有多样性、合作性和灵活性的特点。英国实施基础学位之后,发现有的基础学位成了高级国家证书的代名词,大众对基础学位还存在不少误解,基础学位有成为其他学位跳板的趋势,企业参与程度不高。

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The basic degree is a short-term higher education degree system used in England, wales and Northern Ireland to equip students with specific skills needed in the Labour market. In 2000 the idea of a basic degree was put forward by Brian blunkett, the minister of state for education and employment. Following the education and ministry of employment's 2000 state of the union address, the government decided to support a pilot program of 20 foundation degrees starting in September 2001. The foundation committee for higher education in England has published the basic degree programme, which introduces the core features of the basic degree and suggests that higher education and education institutions continue to achieve innovation in teaching. Its innovation is mainly reflected in the following aspects: first, enterprises actively participate in the course design and review; Second, study and work together; Third, the minimum requirement for basic degree is 240 credits. The fourth is to use the way of bidding to ensure the implementation of basic degree; Fifth, higher education institutions have the right to grant degrees. In November 2000, the first 518,6805 fund was set up by the higher England education foundation for a pilot programme of 2,123 new foundation degrees. The education and skills departments have also given start-up funding accordingly. In the 2001-2002 academic year, 4,320 students enrolled in the foundation degree program, rising to 99,475 in 2009-2010.

In terms of the UK's higher education qualification framework level, the basic degree is equivalent to level 4 and level 5, as well as the first two years of study for an honorary degree. The students who participate in the basic degree study can be the national vocational qualification level 3 gainers, can also be the advanced apprentice and higher diploma gainers, or even the middle ordinary education A certificate gainers, learners can work while learning. Foundation degree holders can either take part in further development of professional qualifications equivalent to the UK higher education qualification framework level 6 and level 7, or they can directly pursue a postgraduate degree by obtaining an honorary degree.

Generally speaking, in the process of the establishment and operation of a basic degree involves at least education skills department, the council for higher education quality assurance, the development of higher education funding council, foundation degree committee, the industry skills council, institutions of higher education, normal groups, professional organizations, trade unions and business owners, and many other types of institutions. The different functions of these institutions make cooperation among them crucial. According to the regulations of the higher education fund management committee, the rights and responsibilities of enterprises in the basic degree include: enterprises participate in the design and review of the basic degree courses; In the case of recognition by professional groups, enterprises, together with national or local government departments, formulate requirements for basic degree courses and conduct teaching, evaluation and guidance for students in the workplace. The UK higher education quality assurance agency (education) has made general provisions on the standards for the results of basic degree studies. Some industry organizations also have specific regulations on the knowledge, skills and understanding standards of the basic degree winners in the industry. For example, the British health care industry requires that the industry standards account for at least 35% of the total credits of the basic degree. To some extent, this challenges the traditional teaching autonomy of British universities.

The UK foundation degree also involves continuing the collaboration between the higher education and education institutions. According to the statistics of 2010-2011 academic year, 72% of the full-time students and 80% of the part-time students are registered in higher education institutions, while about 35% of the full-time students and 54% of the part-time students are teaching in higher education institutions. Two problems arise here. First, although the basic degree is an advanced education degree, it can continue to complete registration and teaching in education college. Second, the inconsistency between basic degree registration institutions and education institutions is usually the root cause of the conflict between the two types of institutions. There is an intricate relationship between the higher education institutions and the continuing collaboration between education colleges. "Differences in culture, teaching methods, resources and status between the two lead to unstable partnerships." "The first problem is the design and operation of the cooperative relationship by the stakeholders, which is full of doubts, if not accusations." "The higher education institutions and the education institutions continue to be difficult to work with, and instead compete with each other, questioning each other's standards and thereby rigorously vetting and haggling for confirmation."

As the source of students for the basic degree is diverse, the previous knowledge and experience of students should be evaluated first, and these knowledge and experience may come from work, may have a certificate, or may not have a certificate, and the evaluation must be flexible and diverse, so as to meet the actual situation of students. Second, there are various development paths after obtaining the basic degree. There is a close relationship between the basic degree and other higher education qualifications. The basic degree courses must be recognized by higher education institutions, or other education and professional groups. The higher education quality assurance committee believes that:

Foundation degree regulations must ensure that at least is consistent and an honorary degree, foundation degree course must have the steps to achieve an honorary degree and process arrangement, with professional qualifications or a high level of national vocational qualification, on the basis of basic degree, and the students who want to receive an honorary degree to continue learning time is usually not more than 1.3 years full-time students.

Thirdly, due to the difference in the source of students and learning conditions, different ways of participating in learning, flexible teaching mode of basic degree, can be used full-time, part time system, distance teaching, work practice teaching, network teaching and so on. For example, two-year basic degree courses developed by tui travel group and higher education institutions are mostly taught by online tutors education.

The rough concept of basic degree is mainly reflected in two aspects, one is the old wine in the new bottle, and the other is the vague understanding.

The first is old wine in new bottles. Before the introduction of the basic degree, the British short-term higher education is mainly based on advanced national certificates and advanced national diplomas. The teaching of these two short-term higher education courses is mainly undertaken by the continuing education college and the pre-1992 multi-disciplinary technical college, and is certified by the business group edes. By the 1990s, the demand for advanced national certificates and advanced national diplomas was declining because:

The higher national diploma has become a "flawed" qualification, meaning that those who fail to achieve A level can also earn A degree in A university course. Although the qualification is related to the job, there are no strict regulations on the degree of enterprise and work practice. Advanced national certificate is a part-time professional qualification. Most advanced national certificates are taught in the classroom rather than job-based learning, which is flexible and diversified, including online learning and distance learning.

The introduction of the basic degree is driven by the need to change the unfavorable situation of advanced national certificates and advanced national diplomas, to serve as a "new path and form of higher education", and to "develop new opportunities for higher education, and to strengthen the employment-oriented skills, expertise and broad understanding required by the new economy".

But the reality is that there is a rapid switch from an advanced national diploma program to a basic degree. Some scholars have noted that:

The number of students enrolled in higher national diploma programs dropped from 63,285 in the 2001-2002 academic year to 25,815 in the 2006-2007 academic year, while the number of students enrolled in basic degree programs increased from 4,320 in 2001-2002 to 60,925 in 2006-2007. Many institutions of higher learning have converted previously awarded higher national diplomas into foundation degrees. In fact, in the 2004-2005 academic year, 46 percent of all students enrolled in the foundation degree program were transferred this way. In terms of the degree of change in the curriculum, according to a 2005 survey by the higher quality assurance agency education, only 30% of the curriculum has changed slightly. This has led to an important criticism of job-based learning: that a basic degree is just another name for an advanced national diploma.

So the problem with the original higher national diploma may still exist in the basic degree.

The second is the vagueness of understanding. In 2006, zamosky pointed out through research that "most public institutions and enterprises, a small number of academic institutions, still regard 'foundation' as the preparatory course of higher education. There is a huge misunderstanding about the application of basic degrees. A 2008 survey of 600 college students found that 54 percent had heard of a basic degree, 37 percent had not, and 10 percent were unsure. About the nature of a basic degree, 27% of students said they had heard the term "basic degree" but knew nothing else. Twenty-nine percent of students said they were taking an introductory course in their first year of an honorary degree. Thirteen percent said a basic degree is a degree that is compatible with higher education qualifications. Eight percent of students see a basic degree as part of job-based learning at the university. Three percent of students consider a basic degree to be a first-level basic degree. Two percent of students consider a basic degree to be a national vocational qualification level 4 or 5. Two percent of students considered a foundation degree a nickname for an advanced national diploma. 7% of the students correctly realized that the basic degree needs to be joined by enterprises for better development. Six percent said it was an independent professional or academic degree.

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