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Interest groups

2018-12-05 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Interest groups,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了利益集团。利益集团,指的是一个持有共同态度、向社会其它集团提出要求的集团。如果它通过向政府的任何机构提出要求,它就变成一个政治性利益集团。利益集团的利益既包括财富等经济内容,也包括意识形态和思想主张等非经济内容。一般认为,政党不是利益集团,因为政党和利益集团追求的目标不同。然而政党和利益集团有着密切的关系,政党内部一直存在着不同的利益集团和势力,所以政党无疑是利益集团的政治代言人。

Interest groups,利益集团,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The United States is a highly developed country with the largest number and types of interest groups in the world. The activities of interest groups can be seen behind the introduction of any policy in the United States. The formulation of any policy is the result of the game between different interest groups and represents and reflects the goal pursuit of different interest groups. America trade policy with China is no exception.

An interest group is a group that holds a common attitude and makes demands on other groups in society. If it makes a request to any body of government, it becomes a political interest group. The "interests" of interest groups include not only economic contents such as wealth, but also non-economic contents such as public interests, ideology and ideological propositions. Generally speaking, political parties are not interest groups because they pursue different goals. The former seeks to ensure that its members win government elections so that they can take office; the latter is mainly outside the broad sense of government to try to influence the relevant policies of the government. But in fact, political parties and interest groups have always been closely related, and there have always been different interest groups and forces within the political parties. Political parties are political spokesmen for interest groups.

Since the 1990s, interest groups have significantly increased their influence in the formulation of U.S. China policies, especially trade policies, and have in fact led the trend of U.S. trade policies toward China. The reasons are mainly as follows:

The reason why interest groups can get involved in the formulation of American foreign policy is closely related to the unique political system and tradition of the United States. Firstly, the constitution and political tradition of the United States encourage the existence of different views and interest groups, which play a guarantee and encouragement role for interest groups to participate in the decision-making process. Secondly, the separation of powers and checks and balances in the United States creates extremely favorable conditions for interest groups to conduct political lobbying. Finally, frequent presidential, congressional and local elections, as well as the money politics behind them, have also increased the influence of interest groups on the government and lawmakers, making it easier for them to influence government decisions. These characteristics of the American regime provide the conditions for interest groups to exert influence on the decision-making process of the government. With the decline of the influence of political parties in the United States and the intensification of the decentralization of government power in recent years, interest groups have been playing a more and more important role in American political decision-making.

After the end of the cold war, America's foreign relations have become more flexible and are not as easily controlled by national security strategy as in the past. It is difficult for the administration to lead foreign policy alone, and congress and interest groups no longer raise objections to the government's decisions as they did in the past, but become increasingly active in foreign decision-making. As China and the United States no longer have the overwhelming "common strategic interest" of "united resistance against the Soviet union", various interest groups such as human rights and religion, which were suppressed by "national security" in the cold war, came to the forefront one after another. In order to protect and promote the interests of the group, all interest groups are trying to exert influence on the foreign policy of the United States. The trade policy toward China, which was originally a purely economic issue, has become the bargaining chip and tool for them to achieve their own political purposes.

With the economic globalization, Sino-us economic and trade relations have been further developed. Economic and trade issues in the three pillars of the United States' China policy -- "economy and trade, security and human rights" -- have gradually become the mainstream of china-us relations, and the maintenance of economic interests plays an extremely important role in the us foreign policy. As a result, relevant interest groups from the industrial and commercial circles, which were not interested in China's trade policy in the first place, also took part in the formulation of China's trade policy. Again after entering the 21st century, the economy of China into a period of rapid growth, the us business community awareness of the importance of the Chinese market has further, they will have good and stable trade with China as a huge earnings, which leads to its activity of policy-making influence has entered a new phase, both on the effect of size, strength and there has been a qualitative change.

At present, the relationship between China and the United States is getting closer and closer. As the areas of contact between the two countries increase, more and more interest groups are involved. Under such conditions, all kinds of interest groups try their best to participate in the formulation of trade policies with China, and all want to make the policies develop in a direction that is beneficial to them. Interest groups influence policy-making in a variety of ways, including: first, direct lobbying and extra-judicial activities. Such as direct contact with government officials and their aides, attending committee hearings and assisting in decision-making. Second, provide money and influence the campaign. Interest groups set up political action committees that provide money to candidates who want to run for President, governor, or Congressman in the hope of influencing policy through congress or the government. Third, create public opinion pressure. It is mainly through the power of the media to form a favorable social atmosphere and public opinion to guide the government and the congress. In some cases, the government has been pressured by strikes, sit-ins, marches and other demonstrations. In addition, interest groups may resist the implementation of policies or laws against them through judicial proceedings.

Through the above means, interest groups have exerted their influence in all stages of the formulation and implementation of U.S. trade policies with China. First, before policy formulation, interest groups will construct policy issues and set agenda, so as to make the issues and opinions they care about and advocate become hot spots and attract the attention of the public, the government and the congress. Second, in the process of policy decision-making, interest groups take various measures, such as providing data and information, inducing public opinion and lobbying, etc., to promote the evolution of policies in favor of their own interests. Third, in the process of policy implementation, interest groups will supervise and control the implementation of policies and affect the adjustment of policies. In this way, interest groups have penetrated their influence into all aspects of policy formulation, making the policy fully reflect their will and protect their interests.

At present, on the issue of trade policy with China, interest groups are divided into two camps: one is an anti-china group represented by labor and human rights organizations; the other is an industrial and commercial enterprise group that supports the development of Sino-us trade. Their attitudes towards Sino-us trade are diametrically opposed.

In the United States, the members of interest groups opposed to improving Sino-us relations and obstructed by every means on Sino-us economic and trade issues are relatively complex and have different goals, which can usually be divided into the following two categories. The first is the so-called "fair trade" interest groups, mainly labor organizations and small business organizations. Because China's cheap products affect the income and employment of the members of these organizations, they advocate a tough trade policy with China and require restrictions on imports from China in the form of tariffs and quotas. The second is human rights organizations, religious organizations, environmental protection organizations and non-proliferation organizations. This is the kind of organization that creates and renders a lot of things and is the most active in action. They often accuse China of violating international agreements, restricting human rights, damaging the environment and proliferating weapons of mass destruction. For this reason, negative reports have been carried out from time to time to smear China. These interest groups do not consider economic factors at all. They only care about the object of trade rather than the trade itself. They are hardcore anti-china forces and advocate economic sanctions against China. They obstruct not only the deepening of china-us economic and trade relations, but also the normal development of china-us political relations.

Interest groups supporting the promotion of china-us economic and trade relations are mainly business organizations with economic ties to China. It can be divided into three categories: first, the groups engaged in export and investment to China are mainly large enterprise groups or organizations with relatively high competitiveness in the United States, such as Boeing, AT&T, three major automobile companies, as well as service industry associations and agricultural product export associations. Second, groups importing products from China or investing in and processing in China are mainly composed of import enterprises and retail enterprises related to daily consumer goods. Third, companies and enterprises engaged in the re-export trade between China and the United States. From the perspective of economy, these interest groups strongly advocate maintaining sound and stable economic and trade relations with China. They form another political alliance with officials in the U.S. government who handle specific issues and those who view U.S. -china relations objectively.

The alliance of these two major interest groups did their best to compete with each other for influence on the issue of American trade policy with China and played an important role in the formulation of the policy. Driven by economic interests, such interest groups as industry, commerce, agriculture, service industry and importers have made every effort to maintain sound and stable china-us economic and trade relations. But human rights, labor, environmental protection, religion and the goals pursued by pro-Taiwan interest groups overlap and form anti-china alliances. Their uproar has intensified negative public attitudes towards Beijing, put pressure on Washington and seriously disrupted the normal development of bilateral relations. It is up to the dominant position to decide which of the two Italian league alliances can influence the trade policy towards China. The fluctuation of power between them is the main reason for the swing of the us trade policy towards China. When the anti-china group forces are on the rise, it will lead to the Sino-us relations in a dangerous situation; When the china-friendly group rises, it will push congress and the President to reach consensus on China policy and put china-us economic and trade relations on a sound track of development.

In the early post-cold war period, so-called human rights, religion and political groups dominated China's policies, so trade policies as purely economic issues had to be involved with politics. The annual review of "most-favored-nation treatment" and additional clauses are the product of this era. However, with the rapid growth of China's economy, complementary and win-win economic and trade exchanges have become the mainstream of china-us relations, so the influence of industrial and commercial interest groups is growing. Compared with the opposition camp, the advantage of commercial interest groups lies in their huge economic resources and sufficient funds, which enable them to effectively lobby the government and congress through multiple channels. Not only that, the development of the business class is directly related to the American economy and employment situation, so it occupies an important position in American political life.

At present, judging from the strength comparison between the alliance of two major interest groups, the positive forces supporting the development of Sino-us trade are greater than the conservative forces, and the normal development of Sino-us economic and trade relations has a relatively stable foundation.

At present, economic and trade exchanges and cooperation between China and the United States have reached a considerable scale. In 2007, the total value of china-us trade was 302.08 billion us dollars, an increase of 15% over the previous year. The America became the second largest trading partner of China, while China became the third largest export market of the us and the fastest-growing export market, and will become the second largest trading partner of the us. The mutually beneficial and win-win china-us economic and trade relations have not only brought tangible economic benefits to the American people and interest groups, but also become an important foundation and powerful driving force for the development of china-us relations and an "internal stabilizer" of china-us relations.

Under such conditions, under the pressure of dominant industrial and commercial interest groups, the us trade policy towards China will be based on maintaining relatively stable and sound economic and trade relations with China, and will focus on urging China to fulfill its WTO commitments, accelerate market opening and institutional reform. By urging China to fulfill its WTO commitments, it can promote American values of freedom and promote China's rule of law and political, social and economic reforms. It will promote the expansion of American financial and other service industries in China and create more opportunities for American goods to enter the Chinese market. This is very much in the interest of us domestic political forces and big export groups.

However, the stable us trade policy with China does not mean that the development of Sino-us trade will be smooth sailing. Protectionist forces still have considerable influence in the United States. Interest groups representing traditional industries will exert influence on the formulation of American policies through various ways. The expanding trade deficit and unemployment also create the policy demand for the protection of domestic traditional industries. In order to appease the dissatisfaction of interest groups and meet other political needs, the U.S. government will use safeguard measures and other means in its foreign trade policies to protect the domestic market. In addition, there are some extreme anti-china groups, such as human rights and religious organizations, who, for their own special interests, always try their best to stir up public antipathy and hostility towards China. All these factors will make the development of normal economic and trade relations between China and the United States variable.

Moreover, from the perspective of development trend, the interest pursuit of various interest groups in the United States is multi-faceted, and their position on China is not fixed, but is changing with the change of the situation and the drive of interests. Therefore, the views of interest groups on the United States' trade policy toward China will also change. For example, service industry, agriculture and other interest groups have been the major producers of sino-us trade disputes in recent years. They have repeatedly pressed China on issues such as intellectual property rights, agricultural imports and the opening of the service sector, demanding that Washington intervene in trade. Although these interest groups demand stronger economic and trade ties with China in order to safeguard their own interests and support a stable trade policy with China, when their expected interests cannot be realized, they will turn to anger at China and demand a tough policy against China to meet their interests. For some time to come, these interest groups are expected to focus on areas other than textiles where trade disputes between China and the us are most likely to occur.

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