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Free farmers in England

2018-12-04 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Free farmers in England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的自由农民问题。中世纪自由农民是相对于农奴而言的,这一群体与农奴同时存在,由于其法律地位和经济状况优于农奴,历史作用比农奴更为重要。英国自由农民是一个不断发展变化的群体,中世纪早期的自由农民明显不同于中世纪晚期和近代早期的自由农。中世纪早期自由佃农主要是自由持有农,到中世纪晚期和近代早期由于维兰经历了从传统的依附农民向自由农民的转变过程,惯例土地上的公簿持有农和契约租地农也已经摆脱了封建庄园制束缚,成为自由农民。

Free farmers,英国自由农民,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

In the middle ages, free peasants were relative to serfs. This group existed at the same time as serfs. Due to their superior legal status and economic status, history played a more important role than serfs. Free farmers in Britain are a group that develops and changes constantly. The free farmers in the early middle ages are obviously different from those in the late middle ages and early modern times. In the early middle ages, free sharecroppers were mainly free holders. In the late middle ages and early modern times, due to the transformation process from traditional dependent farmers to free farmers, copyholders and leasehold -- er on conventional land had also been freed from the shackles of feudal manorial system and became free farmers. Due to the important position of agriculture and farmers in the transformation from traditional agricultural society to modern capitalist society in Britain and the unique position of Britain in the modern history of the world, foreign scholars have conducted a lot of in-depth and detailed studies on the free farmers since the middle ages. There are both theoretical analysis, but also a large number of micro - research, fruitful results. The research results of foreign scholars and British free farmers that the author can find can be roughly divided into the following aspects:

Due to the long history of the early middle ages and the limitation of historical data, the academic circles have been divided on the identity development of British middle peasants. Most British historians, from the early maitland, vinogradov to Hilton, believe that the middle English peasants experienced a path from freedom to slavery and then to freedom. However, some scholars have put forward different views. Nannies in the west first proposed that slavery existed since ancient times, and the ancient society did not experience the development from freedom to slavery. Aston, a famous historian and editor of the magazine past and present, also believes that in the Anglo-Saxon period, England was full of manors at the very beginning. Most of the farmers were attached to the tillers, not free people. Maybe it was through the later reclamation movement that the farmers gradually became free. Postan, a famous economic historian and former editor of economic history review and Cambridge European economic history, pointed out in his economic and social in the middle ages that prehistoric people were equal, but the Germanic people had been unequal since the Roman era. During the Anglo-Saxon period, serfdom also developed and became very common. But postan also argued that from a legal point of view, serfdom came into being later. The author agrees that there was a development path from freedom to enslavement and then to freedom for middle English peasants.

The question of the criterion for judging free peasants and serfs appeared in the debate on the formation of the British serfdom. However, the answer to this question not only involves the formation of serfdom, but also involves the decline of serfdom, that is, how to judge the transition from serfdom to free peasants. Postan believed that the legal status of the peasants was not consistent with the actual economic situation. Although Henry ii legally determined that villand was a serf, in fact villand was further away from serfs. This makes the judgement of farmer identity in ambiguous. Hilton, a British expert on farmers, is trying to reconcile the legal status of farmers with their economic status. In his opinion, before the formation of serfdom, servitude was not considered as a sign of personal freedom. At that time, many velan servitude did not bear the estate tax, marriage donation and other low obligations. However, after the formation of the serfdom system, the main criterion to judge whether a farmer is free is whether he serves as a slave. In addition, legally, free farmers can appeal to the crown court, which in contrast does not accept veran's case. Low status obligations such as inheritance tax and marriage donation have also become the symbols of villand's identity. By the 13th century, if a tenant worked hard, he was considered not free, and if he paid a monetary rent, he was considered a free peasant. Hatcher did not agree with Hilton's point of view, he put forward his own views in his paper "serfdom and Wieland system in Britain: an attempt to reevaluate". In his opinion, if labor in the 13th century was the proof of viran's identity, some materials in the 11th and 12th centuries showed that the burden of labor was no lighter or less popular than that in the 13th century, and inheritance tax and marriage donation could not be said to be less, or even heavier than that in the 13th century. Hatcher argued that the most important evidence of the freedom of a sharecropper was whether he had the freedom to move, that is, to be bound to the land and its Lord, that the person who lost his free will was a serf. Most British experts on agriculture and farmers are similar and Hilton's point of view, as Tony Bennett, Campbell, all think that freedom is the main difference between farmers and serfs lineages and legal status of different, the difference between rather than economic, free farmers burden is the glorious duty of serfs burden is the duty of humble, free farmers can complain to the royal court, and the only as serfs room only lords of the manor court, labor is not free status, the main migration of tax and tax, marriage, also is the sign of not free.

At the beginning of the formation of the serfdom system in Britain, there were also powerful free peasants who played a more important role in history than serfs. However, for a long time, the academic circle has paid insufficient attention to its research. There are few articles and monographs on the development of free farmers. However, we can still see the previous research results on the development of free farmers from the articles and monographs on the problems of agriculture and farmers and the social transformation. These research results mainly involve the reasons and approaches for the development and expansion of free farmers in Britain.

First, a study on the reasons for the development and growth of the free peasant class in Britain. The answer to the reason for the development of free farmers is actually the answer to the reason for the disintegration of the British serfdom. In the study of this question, scholars analyzed and demonstrated from different perspectives, proposed the reasons for the change of farmers' identities from serfs to free farmers, and formed different academic views. The author mainly sees the following views: the first view is represented by postan's "population root theory". Epstein believes, serfdom of the middle ages is the can away from the law and the social system and class relations discussion of all the economic fact, in these economic facts, population, prices and agricultural production is closely linked, and affects the economic history of medieval every important events, including demographic factors are most important. Population growth in the 12th and 13th centuries led to increased demand for food, which in turn led to large-scale land reclamation campaigns, rising food prices and rising land rents, which in turn stimulated the economy. But because the population grew so fast that it became so out of proportion to the rate of economic growth that it caused the black death, the outbreak of the black death caused changes in the 14th and 15th centuries. These changes characterized by, as a result of population decline, the lack of labor force, led to the lords of the scramble for Labour and competition between, so as to raise the labor value, then, with a strong personal characteristics and therefore not popular labor rent gradually to currency conversion, and Lord finally abandoned serfdom, that is to say, the population of evil decided to the change of farmers from slaves to freedom. The second view is represented by Hilton's "class struggle theory". Hilton, a famous British marxist historian, "made outstanding contributions to the study of many aspects of economy and society in the middle ages from the perspective of marxism. His works run through the class conflict and the thought of changing from feudalism to capitalism". Hilton thinks, the late medieval England farmers has become a class, he pointed out, "one of the most prominent feature of the history of British farmers, especially in the 1380 s, but farm farmers - practice tenants - to reduce rent, especially the type to reduce apparent 'feudal' rent the urgent requirement of success for many times. The judicial response to this success was the virtual disappearance of serfdom. Hilton's major works emphasizing the role of class struggle between farmers and landlords include serfs for freedom, class conflict and the crisis of feudalism, the transition from feudalism to capitalism, and the decline of serfdom in medieval England. He believed that economic and demographic factors played a certain role in promoting the emancipation of serfs, but not the main role. Way cloth also pointed out that the serf system is low and production technology, the dominant natural economy with super economic force Lord of power, and have close ties together, "is the basic cause of disintegration of feudal system, the limitations of the feudal system, as a kind of production system, and the ruling class greed, collects pay tax and a tax increase the burden of the direct producers had reached unbearable degree". Obviously, he also attributed the emancipation of serfs to the limitations of the manor system and the resistance of serfs caused by the oppression of landlords on peasants. The third argument emphasizes the role of economics. Edward P xia pointed out that, in a variety of factors to maintain serfdom an unstable equilibrium in organisms, many social changes, such as the increase of monetary, political change and the change of the idea may be on the decline of it played a role, but the existence of the instability of the organisms show that it has been a powerful force to maintain, find the real power in finding this support serf system 14 and 15 century serf the real reason for the development of free farmers. The forces that led to serfdom and its existence, he argued, were clearly not found in the political and legal spheres, and therefore had to be found economically. That is to say, serfdom must represent the material interests of some influential social classes. Serfdom exists because of the economic existence of the Lord's territory. In the late middle ages, with the development of economy, monetary land rent replaced labor land rent and the rental of the manor's land made serf owners withdraw from the direct management of the land, which was the main reason for serfs to become free farmers. Charney's analysis was certainly very convincing, but he did not explain why the English farmers had become so rich, even rich enough to buy the freedom and tenancy they had tenanted. To answer this question is Henry Stanley, Bennett, he represents the fourth point of view, that is, from estate found the serf system itself development and liberation. Bennett's British manor life old to 1150-1400 as the research unit, vividly depicts the model of rural life in the middle ages, the influence of the season, the condition of people about the fields, land rent and labor, the obligation of serfs, estate management, rural daily life, entertainment and religious status in daily life, operation of the feudal court, people's attitude towards the social structure, and a variety of industries, such as making a living to sketch the British farms farmers' material and spiritual life of a multiple-layered and comprehensive landscape. The author not only describes the daily activities and life of individual farmers in detail, but also tries to explore the cultural atmosphere and institutional space of their production and life. Although the main purpose of the author is to answer the question of the causes of feudal society, rather than the collapse of serfdom, his research has touched on this question virtually. Because in his view, the manorial system specified person dependent though is an obstacle to the development of individual farmers, but due to the freedom of Germanic tradition and history of wind and rain medium and long-term accumulation of institutional practice, the influence of such factors as the system is still the development of the individual farmers to set aside enough space, so, in the 14th century, the British farms farmers from the shackles of the serf system, took to the road to freedom. This work is undoubtedly of great historical value and ideological enlightenment to the study of free farmers in Britain. In addition, there are also studies on the development and changes from serfs to free farmers, which are also discussed from the aspects of commerce, cities and farmland system.

Secondly, the research on the ways in which serfs became free farmers. Most scholars believe that there are at least four specific ways for serfs to become free farmers. One is the voluntary release of the Lord; Secondly, serfs liberated themselves by escaping successfully. The third is to be granted freedom by courts that tend to favor liberty, the court's path to struggle. However, it is difficult to bring about a general change in serfdom through all three approaches. What led to serfdom's more comprehensive, deeper and universal liberation was the fourth approach, namely, the implementation of monetary land rent or currency conversion.

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