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Changes of the Communist Party in the People’s Republic of China -澳洲代写

2017-06-01 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

本篇Changes of the Communist Party in the People’s Republic of China -澳洲代写讲了中国共产党执政近三十年来,是中国人民公决的执政党。在此期间,中共始终根据情况进行革命和变革。后革命,我们可以认为其最重要的目标是解决生产力问题,解决人民群众的矛盾。本篇澳洲代写由51due论文代写机构整理,供大家参考阅读。


As the ruling political party in the People’s Public of China, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has been ruling it for nearly 70 years. During this time, the CPC has always made revolutions and changes according to the situation. Post-revolution, we can think its most important aim is to solve productive forces issue and solve the contradictions among the people. Compared with revolution, post-revolution pays attention to the construction in the politics, culture, economy rather than fight for liberation by force. According to this concept, it is obvious that the rule and the changes between 1948 and 2010 can be thought as post-revolutionary. 
Before identifying the rule of the CPC, it is necessary to obtain a cognition of the CPC. Political party is a type of political organization which regards being in power as the destination. In representative democracies, a party strives for the ruling power generally by the means of executing the election, and sometimes forming a political alliance, even if necessary, offering the grand coalition. Political parties usually have specific political goals and ideology, have their own claims aiming at the state and social issues, contract its own political programme to show vision. Marxism believes that, in essence, the political party is concentrated on behalf of the interests of a particular class, it is in the leadership position for a specific class of political power, and is a political organization which is formed by the political elite of all classes in order to seize or consolidate the political power of the country (Burton 1987, p441; Shambaugh 2008, p835). Political parties are vital institutions in the functioning of contemporary political systems and governments. 
According to the number of political parties existing in a country, a certain country can be divided into two different categories by its party system (also known as political party system), including one-party dictatorship (non-competitive political party system) and competitive political party system (Malesky, Abrami and Zheng 2011, p409-413). The latter can be subdivided into one and two party system (one party is the dominant type).  
In July, 1921, CPC was founded. Since the announcement of the establishment in 1949 of the People’s Republic of China, it has been the only ruling party in the Chinese Mainland to carry out the people’s freedom and democracy on behalf of Worker-peasant alliance and the United Front led by the working class. Thus, some people have the erroneous notions that China is a nation which implements one party rule. Actually, according to its Constitution, its multi-parties’ cooperation political system as well as the political democracy are both carried out by the Communist Party of China, which means CPC cooperates with other political parties to rule the country, they have a harmonious relationship (Nelson 1948, p120; Chai 1979, p362). After its establishment, the major problem changed from solving contradictions between ourselves and the enemy into solving contradictions among the people. Besides, after obtaining the victory over anti-fascist war, what the CPC faces is to lead its people to develop economy, culture and so on. Here are some typical examples which demonstrate that revolutions and changes between 1948 and 2010 is post-revolutionary. 
In 1948, China was still under the control of the Kuomintang (KMT), after its defeat in China’s Liberation War and retreat to Taiwan, China, the CPC took place of it and founded a new regime. Before announcing a new-born country, there was a heated discussion about the political system. Some democratic parties such as Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League, Chinese Democratic League and the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang, which had a long history about cooperating with the CPC, had joined the 1949 Political Consultative of Chinese People to discuss the relevant matters (Womack 1987, p500-502). Since then, this system has been developed in the Constitution. During the war years, the CPC was quite welcomed by ordinary people. At the beginning of the Anti-Japanese War, the KMT ever implemented non resistance policy, causing the fall of its three northeastern provinces -- Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province and Liaoning Province. After entering the 40’s in the twentieth century, a serious inflation broke out in the mainland of China, the amount of disaster victims was large, however, officials of the KMT corruption was extremely severe. By comparison, CPC insisted on fighting with Japan at the beginning, building a clean government. Hence, people preferred to support the CPC and finally, it became the owner of the whole country. Until today, the PRC has been founded for nearly 71 years. The reason why the CPC can always be the ruling power is complex. Besides its peculiar party building, the most important is the support of the masses (Levitsky and Way 2012, p878). The CPC has always attached importance to its party building by reducing corruption, and advocating clean politics. From this example, it is easy to find that the concentration of the work of the CPC is not contradictions between ourselves and the aggressors. Reduction of corruption is the internal affairs of the CPC, which often occurs after the foundation of new China. The aim is to guarantee a clean ruling party and create a good internal political environment for solving productive forces issue. So in this view, it is post-revolutionary.  
At the early stage of the founding of new China, planned economy was the main form of the Chinese economy, it was highly concentrated and using administrative management as the main mechanism. Its historical situation decided that decision. After the land reform, the agricultural productive had been recovered and developed a lot. However, it was still managed dispersedly, causing difficulties to solve the producing tools, finance and water issues. The traditional system could not resist natural disaster effectively and meet the needs of the industry. So in 1956, the PRC managed to complete the Three Great Remould, transforming the means of production from private ownership to the public one, an ownership by the whole people and ownerships by collectives. After 1978, in order to further develop the social productive forces, President Deng Xiaoping proposed the concept of reform and opening policy, developing Socialist Market Economy after 1980s. Henceforth, Chinese economy began to experience a rapid growth, until it grew to the world’s third largest economy. And people become richer and richer with the development of the national economy. However, just like each coin has its own two sides, the sharp development has weaknesses. East coastal areas quickly made great success by trying to make use of the foreign capital to develop the economy, at the same time, due to historical and geographical reasons, the central region and the western region to develop slowly. Therefor, in January 2000, the State Council establish a leading group for the development of the western region, led by Zhu Rongji, the leader of the State Council Premier at the time. The new policy is aimed at improving the economic and social development of the western region and consolidating the national defense (Gallagher and Hanson 2009, p669). And it was officially put in the practice in March. The change and reform in economy is aimed at reconstructing the broken country. At this time, the rule of the CPC is to lead the whole country to develop economy with the purpose of making people richer and richer without any worry about the basic necessities of life. The essence of the CPC at this time differs from that during the period of the war of resistance against aggression. The latter is to fight with class enemy (aggressors) while the former is to solve the internal contradictions (here denote productive forces issue and solve the contradictions among the people). So it is post-revolutionary.  
What is more, as we all know, there are 56 peoples in the PRC. After founding the People’s Republic of China, CPC recaptured Xizang Province in 1951. Because of the unique tradition and custom of some particular ethnic minorities, the CPC proposed Ethnic Regional Autonomy System. This policy not only earned the respect from the ethnic minority, but also helped to keep the peace between them and Han (Saich 1983, p633). What is more, this policy makes it easy and equal to treat different issues encountered by different minorities. And different minorities can enjoy the benefits of the policy as the same as the Han. 
Macao, Hongkong and Taiwan, all have been occupied by other countries in the twentieth century. In order to realize the unification of China, recapture those three regions, President Deng Xiaoping proposed a policy --“ one country, two systems (Yiu-chung 1998, p147)”, which means in the People’s Republic of China territory, the country’s main body implements socialism and socialist system, Hongkong, Macao and Taiwan implement capitalism and capitalist system. In 1984, after couples of meetings with Mrs. Thatcher, British Prime Minister at the time, Premier Deng finally signed the treaty about transfer of sovereignty over Hongkong. In 1997, the Hongkong Special Administrative Region was established, symbolizing the end of the 155 years of British colonial identity. Then in 1999, the sovereignty of Macao was transferred from Spain to the PRC. This policy has solved the problem of Hongkong and Macao. Now it is a powerful way to promote the settlement of the Taiwan issue. 
The minority policies and the policy (one country, two systems) are issued to develop China’s typical politics in order to improve people’s democracy and freedom. Compared with the war of liberation before 1948, the rule of the CPC and changes in politics are to solve China’s typical democracy and to provide a good internal political and cultural environment for economic development. In this view, it is post-revolutionary.  
Based on aforementioned analysis, we can find that the revolutions and changes that CPC have made were all meant to solve the problem of the social productive forces or to solve the contradictions among the people, thus, those can be regarded as post-revolutionary with no doubt. Only a political party which does care about people themselves can be supported them all the time and its changes and revolution can be called post-revolutionary. Besides, during these years, the CPC has always concentrated on making new policy and changes to solve its issues, it has made great progress, hoping it will continue to make some success. 

References
Burton, C. (1987). ‘China's Post-Mao Transition: The Role of the Party and Ideology in the "New Period"’. Pacific Affairs, Vol. 60, No. 3 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 431-446. 
Chai, T. R. (1979). Communist Party Control over the Bureaucracy: The Case of China, Comparative Politics, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Apr., 1979), pp. 359-370.
Gallagher, M. and Hanson, J. K . (2009). Coalitions, Carrots, and Sticks: Economic Inequality and Authoritarian States’. PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 42, No. 4 (October 2009), pp. 667-672. 
Johnston, A. I. (1984). ‘Changing Party–Army Relations in China, 1979-1984’.  Asian Survey, Vol. 24, No. 10 (Oct., 1984), pp. 1012-1039.
Levitsky, S. R. and Way, L. A. (2012). ‘Beyond Patronage: Violent Struggle, Ruling Party Cohesion, and Authoritarian Durability’. Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 10, No. 4 (December 2012), pp. 869-889. 
Malesky, E., Abrami, R. and Zheng, Y. (2011). ‘Institutions and Inequality in Single-Party Regimes: A Comparative Analysis of Vietnam and China’. Comparative Politics, Vol. 43, No. 4 (July 2011), pp. 401-419.
Nelson, W. E. (1948). Far Eastern Survey, Vol. 17, No. 10 (May 19, 1948), pp. 118-121. 
Saich, T. (1983). ‘Party and State Reforms in the People's Republic of China’. Third World Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Jul., 1983), pp. 627-639.
Saich, T. (1992). ‘The Fourteenth Party Congress: A Programme for Authoritarian Rule’. The China Quarterly, No. 132 (Dec., 1992), pp. 1136-1160.
Shambaugh, D. (2008). ‘Training China's Political Elite: The Party School System’. The China Quarterly, No. 196 (Dec., 2008), pp. 827-844. 
Womack, B. (1987). ‘The Party and the People: Revolutionary and Postrevolutionary Politics in China and Vietnam’, World Politics, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Jul., 1987), pp. 479-507. 
Yiu-chung, W. (1998). ‘Restructuring the Party-state policy: China’s political structural reform in the 1980s’. Asian Perspective, Vol. 22, No. 3 (1998), pp. 133-167. 

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