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The quality of American higher education

2019-04-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The quality of American higher education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国高等教育的质量。美国高等教育在走向大众化普及化的过程中面临着质量问题的困扰。教职自由和同僚关系这种学术自治的传统以及美国学院与大学内对改善教育质量所采取的自由主义管理态度,是引起美国高等教育质量问题的主要原因。要提高美国高等教育的质量,就必须保留政府或学校对学术实践的控制权或改变权,以便更好地建立旨在加强学术机构内教职集体与学术单位如何协调的规范体系,从而使高等教育质量的保证与提高显得更加合理化。

American higher education,美国高等教育质量,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Higher education in the United States is facing quality problems in the process of becoming popular and universal. The tradition of academic autonomy, such as "faculty freedom" and "full collegiality", as well as the liberal management attitude adopted by American colleges and universities to improve the quality of education, are the main causes of the quality problems of American higher education. In order to improve the quality of higher education in the United States, it is necessary to retain the control or change of academic practice of the government or the school, so as to better establish a normative system aimed at strengthening the coordination between teaching collectivity and academic units in the academic institutions, so as to make the guarantee and improvement of the quality of higher education more reasonable. This is of great significance for the improvement of the quality of higher education in China.

At present, the ministry of education and the ministry of finance have officially launched the "higher education undergraduate course teaching quality and teaching reform project". Higher education shoulders the function and mission of cultivating national senior talents and serving the country. The quality of higher education has a very important influence on the overall development of the country and society. In today's society with the rapid development of knowledge economy, more and more high-level knowledge talents are needed, which makes higher education play an increasingly important role. Therefore, issues related to the quality of higher education have attracted extensive attention from countries all over the world. In fact, since the 1980s, many countries around the world have continuously strengthened their higher education management and established corresponding management institutions in order to effectively improve the quality of their higher education. For example, the "higher education commission" of the United States, the "national evaluation commission" of France, the "higher education quality commission" of the United Kingdom, and the "higher education quality assurance commission" of Australia.

American higher education has long been known as "popular education" in the world. Its higher education is well known for its popularization, popularization and quality. However, like other countries in the world, American higher education also faces quality problems.

Conditions on the quality of higher education in the United States, the United States higher education at Indiana state university researcher George Kuh in America over the past two years of undergraduate education quality situation analysis pointed out that scholars like to use familiar A to F score method to evaluate the performance of the American education system, but according to the survey, there is no students and schools can score than C, such A level far below what our students and country need commitment or should have good overall.

His overall conclusion is clearly in line with the American public perception that the quality of American higher education is declining. This has caused concern among state and federal governments. State governments in the United States are beginning to establish "student assessment" systems in public college and university education -- systems that systematically evaluate the learning of college students. State legislatures such as north Carolina, for example, have mandated that state research universities increase teaching time by 10 percent. Similarly, the federal government has called for changes to the accreditation system for American colleges and universities. Under pressure from the federal government, regional and professional accrediting bodies have adapted their accreditation standards and evaluation procedures accordingly, focusing on academic quality and improving the quality of teaching and learning. Similarly, this focus on the quality of higher education and the sustained calls for reform have taken different forms in other parts of the world.

In his view, the main cause of the apparent decline in the quality of American higher education was what he called "freedom of the faculty." A national survey of teaching activity in the United States over the past several decades found that faculty members at all four-year colleges, including smaller liberal arts colleges, were spending a declining share of their time teaching and a rising share on research. Charles colofert, an economist at duke university, found that the average annual classroom load at the three universities studied fell between 1977 and 1992, when he tracked the course schedules of a representative group of departments at the university of Chicago, duke and harvard. Although these statistics do not fully capture all aspects of classroom teaching, they indicate that American universities have shifted from teaching to academic research.

In fact, of American university faculty have put more time to engage in academic research, not engaged in the teaching, the main reason lies in the following three aspects: within the university system in the United States, by reducing the time to increase the academic research in teaching practice time itself is a kind of economic rational decisions, the economic interests. In the United States, the competition for research funding is fierce, so in many fields, it takes a lot of time to get academic research funding. Similarly, faculty reputations are earned through academic research. University professors are recruited on the basis of their academic research reputation rather than their teaching reputation. In this way, from the perspective of financial benefits, in order to increase their own remuneration, faculty members will naturally devote more time to academic research rather than teaching activities. Faculty members devote more time to academic research than to teaching activities, which is mainly decided by the university faculty and individual faculty members through academic governance. In the United States, while teaching, research, and public service in university areas are all influenced by the government, most of these day-to-day activities are entirely determined by departments and faculty members. In this way, of course, universities and their faculty will make decisions in their own interest. And this by reducing teaching time to increase the time decision of academic research, and to some extent to the school and faculty itself, but it will directly affect the faculty members of the class teaching quality, will also such as curriculum development, teaching evaluation, and "students' evaluation about students' learning as well as the maintenance of academic standards such as negative impact, so as to affect the quality of the whole higher education. External pressure is also responsible for faculty spending more time on academic research than on teaching. As university recruitment becomes more international and other countries adopt the us system of competitive research grants, it will become more common for faculty members to reallocate traditional teaching time into academic research.

In some ways George cuomo's "clerical freedom" is akin to what Bill Massy of Stanford university calls "full collegiality". In metz's view, despite the external conditions of "full collegiality," respondents told us that they rarely engage in substantive discussions about the need to improve undergraduate education, or have a collective sense of responsibility to get the department to produce more. "Full collegiality" is beneficial to the realization of the rights of the faculty, but it avoids the root of the problem, which is that it prevents faculty from participating in activities such as curriculum structure, educational choice and "student evaluation". In essence, the primary function of "full collegiality" is to provide a mode of communication and contact between faculty members in university departments. However, due to the faculty in the United States alone to carry out their teaching work, plus a subdiscipline is too narrow, many faculty and found that they are unlikely to be together with other faculty to discuss the problem of teaching, and faculty individual self-independence and academic value of professional advantage, leading to the professional course elaboration and isolation, this makes the role of "completely colleagues relations".

According to American scholar Dill, to improve the quality of higher education, we should start from three aspects. Improve communication and responsibility within educational institutions; to establish new mechanisms for teaching and university learning, which are as important as academic research.

In essence, to succeed in addressing the quality of education, universities must make faculty treat teaching and student learning as equally as they treat their own academic research. However, in the United States, many universities still rely on "teaching" in the form of traditional educational organizations, and this kind of education specialization and traditional professional autonomy often make it difficult for the teaching staff to work together to improve the educational process. To this end, American universities are establishing a new educational management structure system, so as to better adjust the teaching responsibilities and strengthen the control of the subject areas. These include the allocation of equal teaching resources, the establishment of faculty associations within the department of education to work together on quality issues in teaching and learning, and other matters. The purpose of changing the organizational structure is to promote more effective cooperation among teaching staff, systematically improve the system of teaching and learning responsibilities, and turn the teaching association into a learning organization. The management organization of structural adjustment way makes the faculty association become a learning organization will help them survive in an increasingly competitive environment and development, and this change will help to improve teaching and students' learning new knowledge of the internal transfer, which benefits the update of teaching the knowledge structure and raising the level of knowledge.

In addition, from the foregoing discussion, it can be seen that one of the main reasons for the quality problems of American higher education is the academic quality of teaching staff and the motivation and value of maintaining academic standards. In fact, however, it is precisely this kind of motivation and value that may invalidate many of the policies currently being advocated in the United States to ensure the quality of higher education because they do not share the same value goal orientation. The original higher education quality evaluation system in the United States mainly focuses on the following points: the qualification system of university investment quality is better than the teaching result; A specific workload for teaching; An evaluation system of academic quality based on the authority of the faculty and the university; A traditional performance grant system that measures the amount of university output. Thus, current policies on the quality of higher education in the United States need to focus on promoting collective action by faculty within academic institutions and on enabling academic institutions to exercise their responsibility for maintaining academic standards.

The above analysis of the way out for the quality of higher education in the United States and its policy orientation show that the factors affecting students' learning and the quality of higher education in the United States include the motivation and value of teaching, the quality of teaching's own "social knowledge", and the weakening of professional responsibility culture. Therefore, to make the university faculty of academic standards and responsible for the quality of teaching and learning, to improve the quality of higher education, we must keep control of the government or schools of academic practice, or right to change, in order to better establish aimed at strengthening faculty collective within academic institutions how to coordinate with units of the academic program, exercise their duties effectively, which makes higher education quality assurance and improve appears more rationalization.

In the process of China's higher education transforming from "elite education" to "popular education", the quality of higher education has always been one of the key concerns of domestic experts and scholars. From the perspective of international experience, the education phenomenon accompanied by the popularization of higher education is the decline in the quality of higher education, the devaluation of diplomas and the mediocrity of universities. Higher education in China faces similar problems. Although the higher education system of the United States is not the same as that of China, the problems of the quality of higher education in the United States and the measures taken by it are undoubtedly of great significance for reference to the problems and solutions of the quality of higher education in China.

It is undeniable that "faculty freedom" or "full collegiality" has promoted the improvement of higher education in the United States to some extent. However, the abuse or radicalization of "faculty freedom" or "full collegiality" is bound to damage the quality of higher education in the United States, which is the main reason for the decline of the quality of higher education in the United States. Faculty is because "free" or "completely colleague relationship" makes the United States teachers have more discretion to safeguard their own interests, in the absence of external power and the system under the leading of restriction and market factors, the teachers, of course, to make more drive and put more attention to the scientific research rather than teaching. To this end, American universities are establishing a new educational management structure system to better adjust teachers' responsibilities and strengthen the control of subject areas. Through the teacher assigned the same curriculum, teachers association within the education section is formed to jointly deal with the quality of teaching and learning, and other things, for university faculty committee for education section is responsible for the quality of teaching and learning, including the distribution in teaching and learning of the funds needed for the experiment and reform, for within the education section is to promote the development of teaching and learning to provide various technical support, as well as the center of teaching and learning, curriculum and assessment team to provide all kinds of help, etc. All this largely makes up for the lack of "faculty freedom" or "full collegiality" that has ensured the quality of American higher education.

The popularization of Chinese higher education and the introduction of marketization of higher education management are, on the whole, conducive to improving the overall quality of Chinese citizens and the quality of higher education. However, the popularization of higher education and the introduction of marketization of higher education management also affect the quality of higher education to some extent. This is mainly manifested in two aspects: one is the contradiction between quantity and quality caused by the popularization of higher education. The core of a university is the master, and the contradiction between the number and quality of teachers and the increase in the number of students is the basic contradiction that leads to the decline in the quality of education. Second, the interest contradiction caused by the introduction of marketization of higher education management. University teachers need to spend a lot of time in the academic field if they want to get the financial support of academic research in many fields. In addition, the promotion of teacher positions, salary increase and reputation improvement are also obtained through academic research. According to the current academic incentive mechanism, teachers are bound to spend more time on academic research rather than teaching, thus affecting the improvement of the quality of higher education.

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