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Efficiency in American democratic governance

2019-04-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Efficiency in American democratic governance,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国民主治理中的效率问题。当效率与政府决策联系起来时,这一概念有多层含义。美国的民主治理中的效率问题一直是政治理论学界讨论的重要问题,民主强调个人主义、多数统治,在利益多元化的情况下,民主制度可能会引导出共同利益,也可能强化利益分歧。

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The issue of efficiency and democracy has always been an important issue discussed by the academic circle of political theories. Democracy emphasizes individualism and majority rule. In the case of diversified interests, democratic system may lead to common interests or strengthen differences of interests.

When efficiency is linked to government decision-making, the concept has two meanings. The second is the ability to make decisions with as much information as possible in mind. On the face of it, it is difficult to obtain a majority for any policy in a democracy, and decision-making cannot be efficient. However, after further analysis and research, it is found that the problem is not so simple.

For America's early founders, liberty was synonymous with life. However, the relationship between freedom and power is an eternal problem troubling human beings. American political psychology is a basic feature is that people began to doubt, absolute and unlimited power to insist power but the natural enemy of freedom, and advocates "limited government", has the reputation of "the father of the constitution of the United States" James Madison in 1792 once said: "in Europe, the freedom of the charter has been granted by the authority. The United States set an example that was later emulated by France, which held that the charter of power was conferred by liberty.

In American politics, the value orientation of individual freedom and the protection of citizens' rights is the first, while democracy is shown as an instrumental value, which is the most effective means to protect individual freedom, or the most legitimate democratic system from the perspective of individual rights. Because of this, democracy determines where Americans stand and what they think about government and politics. Americans have always believed in Locke's principle that the legitimacy of government comes from the consent of the governed. Thus, in the case of the state, American politics recognizes the need for the state to exist, but sees the state as the price that must be paid for the common and orderly life of mankind. In order to limit this necessary cost to a small extent, American politics is committed to limiting the power and functions of the state, establishing a democratic constitutional system with separation of powers, and at the same time making the power of the government spread to the society. In turn, various measures to limit state power become the institutional basis for inefficient government decision-making.

Efficiency in decision-making means that the government makes decisions in a timely and prompt manner to ensure the effective implementation of policies. In terms of the political system in history, the decision-making efficiency of autocratic system is the highest. The problem, however, is that if too much emphasis is placed on efficiency, authority must be strengthened and the whole society must act in a highly coordinated way. In this way, individual rights and freedoms may be compromised and the negative consequences of state power that Americans fear will be generated. Thus, from the point of view of America's early founders, they did not need a strong central government, but rather a restrictive, even contradictory, framework of government and an inefficient democracy that guaranteed civil liberties and other democratic rights.

Therefore, in American politics, democracy involves the legitimacy of the government, while efficiency is another category of issues, the two are not comparable.

As a society with diversified interests, coordinating various conflicts of interests is not only the national conditions of the United States, but also the requirements of the American society for its political system. In a society with complex and diverse interests, is there what is commonly referred to as common interest? Most scholars believe that there is a public interest in a society that surpasses the accumulation of various private interests or the sum of local interests. It is an objective existence. Truman, on the other hand, pointed out that "if the interests of various groups are set aside, there is no abstract public interest. The process of numerous groups pursuing their own interests is the process of determining the public interest. Here, we believe that public interest is the unity of objective existence and subjective judgment. In a society where power is concentrated, the ruler has the privilege of explaining or judging the public interest, and can make decisions quickly on some important issues, thus ensuring the efficiency of decisions. However, such a decision is only the judgment of a few people, which will inevitably lead to mistakes on major issues and harm the public interest. Historically, autocratic regimes tend to make decisions based on their own subjective assumptions, and efficient decisions are more likely to harm the public interest.

Majority rule is an important principle of democracy, however, in a wide range of issues, the decision is associated with numerous stakeholders interests, in order to maintain their own interests, each related groups to participate in the political process, the endless argument between each other, the result is, however, bargaining, discuss without decisions, therefore, in American politics, any major decision is difficult to achieve most. The government will not and cannot easily make decisions once the conflicts of interest between the relevant interest groups reach a level that cannot be reconciled. From another perspective, the reason why this situation appears in the decision-making process is precisely because the issues under discussion are of great importance. If decisions are made imprudently and rapidly considering the decision-making efficiency, it will lead to social unrest instead. Certain particularly important issues are put on hold and decisions are not taken in a hurry, so that there is more time for discussion, so that ideas can be put to the best of their ability and opinions can be fully reflected, thus achieving maximum consensus. In this sense, it is sometimes not a bad thing to discuss important issues without making a decision.

The viability of the social system not only depends on the value judgment factors such as "democracy", but with the expansion of government functions and the continuous improvement of people's requirements on the government, the efficiency is becoming increasingly prominent and has been upgraded from the original non-value judgment to one of the value judgment factors. If the efficiency of a government is repeatedly undermined, its legitimacy will also be affected. Every society seeks progress and development, but the social and political system determines the manner in which social change takes place. In systems that emphasize efficiency, when instability attacks social order, a common approach is to strengthen authority and promote social progress through radical changes or revolutions, which often create hidden dangers for another instability. Democracies can lead to social stability and progress through gradual reforms. The American political system has played an important role in the steady development of the American society over the past two hundred years.

The American political system has a revolutionary tradition, but this tradition also opposes the extreme way to carry out social changes, and advocates the maintenance of the existing structure of American society. Early American politicians advocated respect for a progressive legal order in the constitution. In the political process of the United States, there are multiple power centers playing a role. There are conflicts and struggles among them, but at the same time, they are constantly coordinating to reach consensus. Policies are not formulated in grand and solemn debates for the sake of abstract national interests. Policies are merely the result of bargaining, bargaining -- the purpose of compromise is consensus. Such decision-making is seen as an important hallmark of American democracy. More important, America has not only such a democracy, but also the means to reform it.

In a society where power is concentrated, reform on narrow issues is easier to achieve and the efficiency of decision-making is higher. But in decentralized democracies, broader and more sustainable reforms are possible. Lindblom argues that a decentralized society may actually be in a state of "constant revolution."

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