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The industrial revolution in England

2019-03-18 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The industrial revolution in England,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的工业革命。英国的工业革命带来社会生产力的发展和新的社会阶级结构的形成。工人阶级作为一个新的社会阶级,伴随工业革命而形成。作为工业革命中财富的直接创造者,工人阶级的生活水平和财富成果是非常关键的。而实际工资能较好地反映工人实际生活水平,是体现生活水平的最直接最重要的指标。

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The British industrial revolution brought about the development of social productive forces and the formation of new social class structure. As a new social class, the working class came into being with the industrial revolution. As the direct creator of wealth in the industrial revolution, how the living standards of the working class have changed and to what extent the working class has enjoyed the wealth fruits of the industrial revolution are questions worth studying. Real wages can better reflect the actual living standard of workers, which is the most direct and important index to reflect the living standard.

Through horizontal and vertical comparison of the annual nominal wages of adult male full-time workers in 18 occupations in England and wales from 1755 to 1851, it can be found that: high-income government workers, clerics, lawyers, bank employees, engineers and inspectors have higher wage levels than other occupations, and they belong to the high-income class. These occupations also saw higher wage growth, with lawyers earning 699.7 per cent. In other industries, the wage level of agricultural workers and miners is relatively low, while that of skilled workers such as ship builders and engineers is relatively high. The growth rate was lower for agricultural workers and skilled workers, and highest for white-collar workers. By statistical standards, blue-collar workers are the closest to the "working class", with a growth rate of 95.89%.

Change trend of nominal wages does not reflect the change of the working class life level, when workers pay for food, clothing, housing, such as daily necessities, to buy books, movie tickets, let the children accept education, nominal wages into actual purchasing power, truly reflects the living standards of the working class. So we have to go back to that time and look at the consumption structure of the working class and the prices of goods. The price index constructed by Peter and Jeffrey is between the maximum value and the minimum value of the estimated value of this indicator, which is relatively relevant.

When nominal wages are adjusted for the cost of living, it can be found that the real wage growth rates of all kinds of workers are different, but the trend is basically the same. From 1755 to 1805, it rose slightly in stability; from 1805 to 1810, it declined to varying degrees; from 1810 to 1815, it rose significantly; from 1815 to 1819, it experienced another decline, and after that, it basically kept rising. This is generally consistent with the changing trend that most western scholars agree with after the industrial revolution: the living standard of the working class was basically flat in the early stage of the industrial revolution, declined in the middle stage, and improved in the later stage.

In lewis' model, the labor supply curve with infinite elasticity and several labor demand curves intersect at the same level of wage. At this time, the increased labor demand will not lead to the increase of wage. Only when labor becomes a commodity in short supply will the increase in demand for labor bring about a rise in wages. Lewis model is an explanation of the economic transformation of developing countries, and the early industrialization process of Britain fits the description of this model. Therefore, lewis model can be used to explain the changing trend of the real wages of the working class during the British industrial revolution. The changing trend of the real wages of the working class conforms to the description of lewis model: the industrial revolution in Britain was basically flat in the early stage and continued to rise in the later stage.

The premise of lewis' model is that the labor supply curve with infinite elasticity is the labor supply with infinite supply. In Britain, this can be traced back to the enclosure movement and the agricultural revolution. Previously, the British economy was a self - sufficient slave - owner manor economy. The enclosure movement and the agricultural revolution caused by it broke the original economic structure, changed the land ownership and agricultural production mode, and the capitalist tenant system brought the improvement of farming mode, which greatly promoted the development of agricultural productivity. It was this change that provided a huge reservoir of Labour for the development of British industry.

On the one hand, the enclosure movement brought about the increase of the total population; on the other hand, it made the surplus rural labor flow to the cities. The change of land ownership after enclosure made the cultivated land and pasture land under careful management and land productivity improved. In addition, adult men alone could not support the family, so women and children in the family also chose to work outside. The use of female workers and child labor is most prominent in the textile industry. The increase of the total population, the transfer of the agricultural labor force and the participation of women and children provided a huge reservoir of labor for the industrial revolution. Even with the increasing demand for labor during the industrial revolution, this huge reservoir of labor kept the real wages of the working class essentially unchanged at the beginning of the industrial revolution.

In the early and middle stages of the industrial revolution, Britain experienced massive population growth, and the unprecedented growth rate was called the population revolution of Britain. In the later period of the industrial revolution, although the population of Britain continued to grow, the growth rate slowed down obviously. Between 1841 and 1851, Britain's population grew at an average annual rate of about 1.1%. The decline of population growth rate makes the labor supply turn from infinite to limited, and enter the second stage of lewis model. With the increase of labor demand, the wage increases gradually.

Moreover, much of the increase in real wages is due to falling prices. The fall in the cost of living comes directly from the fall in the price of necessities. After the 19th century, with the continuous expansion of the textile industry, the trend of lower cost and lower price appeared, and the consumption of clothing became more and more favorable to the public. The growth of rail transport has reduced freight costs and made commodities and fuels like coal cheaper. The development of productivity brings about increase of labor productivity, the labor value that unit commodity contains decreases, the price drops.

The combination of rising nominal wages and falling prices increased the real wages of the working class.

From the perspective of real wages, the living standard of the British working class experienced a process of constant, slightly decreased to continuously increased, and the changing trend can be described by the lewis dual economic growth model. The supply and demand of the labor market in different periods determines the wage level of workers in different periods. The study of real wages in this paper is limited to adult men, women and children's wages are not taken into account, so the conclusion is not comprehensive enough. However, the conclusion that the general trend of real wages changes is credible, and the application of lewis model also gives a new explanation for the trend.

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