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Administration of the British external economy

2019-02-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Administration of the British external economy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国对外经济的行政管理。英国的对外经贸是实行以私有制为基础,以法律法规和贸易政策为规范,以海关监管为相应手段的高度开放和自由化的管理体制。其对服务贸易和货物贸易的管理基本放开,除个别行业的生产外,政府不干涉企业的对外经济行为,外国公司和个人均可以在英国注册并参加竞争。国家依法对企业进行法律的或行政的管治。

British external economy,英国对外经济,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Britain is known as a "trading nation". At the end of the 17th century, Britain achieved maritime hegemony and world trade market advantage. In the middle of the 19th century, Britain completed the industrial revolution and became the "factory of the world". After World War II, with the rapid economic development of the United States, Japan, Germany and other capitalist countries, Britain's position in the world economy and trade gradually declined. In spite of this, as a typical "export-oriented economy", Britain still maintains extensive economic ties and great influence in the world.

At present, the UK ranks fifth in the world in terms of foreign trade, and second only to the United States in terms of foreign investment and foreign investment attraction. The British government pursues a free, open and multilateral economic and trade policy and takes an active part in international economic affairs such as the world trade organization, the international monetary fund and the organization for economic cooperation and development. The practice of British foreign economic administration is rich in content and has its own characteristics.

Britain's foreign trade is a highly open and liberal management system based on private ownership, regulated by laws, regulations and trade policies, and regulated by customs supervision. The government does not interfere in enterprises' foreign economic activities except for the production of certain industries. Foreign companies and individuals can register and compete in the UK. The state exercises legal or administrative control over enterprises in accordance with law.

As a major member of the eu, the UK does not have its own foreign trade laws and regulations, but follows the common trade policies of the eu, namely the trade legislation based on the common policies stipulated in the ec treaties. The UK participates in the legislative process and faithfully implements the trade laws and policies adopted.

The ec and its 25 member states are members of the WTO, that is, the ec and its 25 member states constitute the 26 members of the WTO. In WTO affairs, after the coordinated positions of eu member states in Brussels and Geneva, the European commission speaks on behalf of the eu and its member states in almost all WTO meetings and affairs. In most cases, therefore, the WTO document refers only to the eu, or "European Community." The UK's trade in goods and services commitments and trade policy review activities at the WTO are included in the eu's relevant commitments and activities.

The ministry of trade and industry is the main economic department of the government responsible for trade and industry at home and abroad. Its functions mainly include domestic and foreign trade policies, export promotion and investment promotion; Responsible for providing business support and improving technology level for enterprises; To administer mergers and acquisitions, prevent monopoly, maintain a fair and open market, and protect the rights and interests of consumers; And economic affairs within the eu. The aim is to improve the sustainability of the UK's modern economy by improving technology and competitiveness.

The regional offices of the ministry of trade and industry are directly under the jurisdiction of the ministry of trade and industry. Its personnel establishment is directly managed by the ministry of trade and industry, whose main functions are to implement regional support policies and manage European regional funds. The ministry of trade and industry shall specifically undertake regional affairs, and shall not directly formulate foreign economic and trade policies.

British local governments have no foreign economic and trade governing bodies. The ministry of trade and industry is responsible for the administration of foreign trade and economic cooperation in all localities.

The main content of the British administrative reform is the role positioning and function optimization of the government, and the "small government" model can be achieved through off-loading. Its reform is recognized as a pioneer of western administrative reform, with radical and systematic design, considerable continuity and durability, traditional civil service system is difficult to effectively resist the reform, the constitutional spirit of parliamentary sovereignty effectively guarantee the implementation of the reform policy of the central government in the whole country. The reform began in 1979 and has lasted for 17 years under the conservative party, and has since been carried out by the current ruling Labour party. The main means of reform are denationalization: full introduction of the market mechanism, and the implementation of regulation in the process of opening up to promote the governance of competition. We will carry out policy reforms in the public sector, including education, medical care, social security, environmental protection, public transportation and employment. The implementation of administrative system includes internal reform of organizational structure, working procedures, personnel system, supervision mechanism, public responsibility mechanism and management methods and technologies. The reform covers seven themes: privatization, decentralization, competition, entrepreneurship, deregulation, quality of service and restrictions on trade unions. Major reform measures with institutional innovation, such as rayner review, minister management information system - new financial management plan, next action plan, citizen charter movement and competition for quality movement, have been taken successively. The reform has been effective and highly influential. The following focuses on two reform measures that are closely related to the external economic and administrative relations.

The Citizen's Charter is to make public the contents, standards and responsibilities of public services of The government in The form of Charter, accept public supervision, and realize The purpose of improving The service level and quality. The formulation and promulgation of the charter of all departments must follow six principles, namely, clear service standards, transparency, customer choice, courteous service, sound supervision mechanism and capital value. This is the focus of British administrative reform from the pursuit of economy and efficiency to focus on quality and public service level shift. By 1996, there were 42 national citizen charters. Under the influence of the non-mandatory system, almost all government departments and public service departments have set targets for their businesses and announced their performance.

It is one of the guiding principles of the UK's administrative reform to introduce market and competition mechanisms into the public sector. The competition mechanism of the public sector involves the relationship between the government and the market and the relationship within the public sector, including various ways and means to promote competition, such as non-monopoly and competition, regulation to promote competition, competition between public and private, and competition between public organizations. The realization forms of non-monopoly and competition are: establishing new competitive entities, block segmentation, controlling proportion restriction, business scope segmentation, etc. The main forms of competition promoted by regulation are: open infrastructure, wholesale price control, retail price control, scale competition, and decentralized operation; The main forms of competition between public and private and public organizations include: contract rental system, market inspection, customer competition, internal market, etc. In the process of opening up the public service sector, the British government realized that the implementation of non-monopoly and competition and regulation to promote competition was as important as the opening up of the public service sector and the privatization of the state-owned economy.

The United Kingdom implements the unified rules of origin of the European Union, aiming to identify the source of trade goods. There are two forms of rules: the first is non-preferential rules of origin. It applies to trade between eu members and countries outside the eu. Non-preferential rules of origin are particularly important when the eu takes anti-dumping, quantitative restrictions and other measures against a country. The second is the principle of preferential origin. There is no single international agreement, mainly between the eu and third parties, to allow goods to enter the eu at a more favourable tariff than the common tariff.

The eu is a customs union, with free trade among its 25 members and uniform tariffs on imports from outside the eu. The tariff table adopts HS commodity code, and the import tax adopts the principle of tax according to price.

The British government is positive about opening up the domestic market, but still takes appropriate non-tariff measures, including import licensing system and import restrictions, to safeguard the overall interests of the country. In addition, the UK implements certain regulations on the safety standards of imported products. It is the responsibility of the British standards authority. If the CEN is similar to the eu CEN, the CEN becomes the British standard. If the CEN is different from the ISO, the ISO shall prevail and the UK shall implement the WTO "standard rules".

Eu anti-dumping and countervailing measures shall be uniformly implemented by the European commission. The UK and other member states shall not take any individual action.

Britain has no specific laws to guide or restrict foreign investment. Foreign companies in the UK enjoy the same national treatment as British companies. The government has privatized state-owned monopoly industries and opened the market wider to foreign enterprises so that they have more opportunities to enter the market.

The preferential tax policies include the consideration of tax reduction measures for transnational corporations, the reform of double taxation system, the adoption of "group preference", the implementation of capital expenditure deduction, and the unrestricted profit transfer.

Britain has set up more than 80 training and enterprise bureaus across the country. The government provides financial support for companies to train or educate workers. At the same time, Britain attaches great importance to establishing the same values and moral standards as the public in the business community. The British and American ngo committee on economic priorities, based in London and New York, set up the committee on economic priority accreditation and designed the SA8000 standard and certification system. The certification system sets strict standards for nine aspects, including human rights, including child labor, forced labor, health and safety, freedom, discrimination, disciplinary measures, working hours, wages and management systems.

In order to guide investment and support the high-tech industry, the British government provides tax subsidies for the research, development and investment of enterprises. Grants from the UK government or the eu can be obtained through the department of trade and industry's research and technology initiative and the aid in research products programme.

Under the rfi scheme, the UK government USES eu market fund funds to support "first class" targeted regional investment projects in recession and worsening economic conditions to boost the economies of remote areas.

Britain currently has seven free zones considered outside the eu customs union. Within the free zone, goods can be traded without customs duties, VAT or other charges until they are allowed to circulate freely within the eu or re-exported outside. There are customs warehouses all over the country. The goods may be stored in the customs warehouse for a long period of time, with the same preferential terms as in the free zone.

From the practice and characteristics of Britain's foreign economic management, we can see that its public administration, whether in the formulation and implementation of laws, institutional reform and institutional innovation, policies and measures, is permeated with many important thoughts and theories in modern management, including the concept of rule of law, innovative thinking and service consciousness. Seriously study and grasp the basic spirit and its realization form of thought and theory, objective and in-depth contact guangdong foreign economic reform and development of related issues, including the administrative legal theory, the rule of law, market integration, openness and governance problems, public service, etc., to further understand and grasp the scientific outlook on development, establishing the rule of law government, improve the ability of public administration, and promote foreign economic sustainable development, will have a positive role.

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