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The development of modern logistics in the United States

2019-02-21 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The development of modern logistics in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的现代物流业发展。从19世纪到20世纪,经过近一个世纪的严格规范,美国的物流业在运输市场秩序较好的前提下选择放宽控制,但却丝毫不显混乱,除了加强承运人对运价调整的控制,还对毁灭性恶性竞争的进行控制。在运输业已发展到相当规模和实力的情况下放宽管制,可以鼓励企业通过合作和兼并,形成一些大型的跨行业物流企业,促进多式联运的成长,这就是美国现代物流业飞速发展的原因。

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American government adopts the strategies of "somewhat in charge" and "somewhat regardless" in the management of the logistics industry. "Guan" mainly refers to the supervision of traffic safety and environmental protection, and "regardless" refers to the deregulation of traffic and transportation economic regulations. In terms of traffic economic regulations, the United States has experienced a "loose - tight - loose" evolution process. Before the 19th century, the American transportation market was in a state of loose disorder and vicious competition was serious. The 1880 s to the half of the 20th century, the U.S. congress have passed a series of laws and regulations, the highway, railway, aviation, water transport and other transport carrier's market access and transport rate adjustment to carry on the strict limit, as a result, at the same time of standardize market order, choked market dynamics, by more and more strong resistance. After the 1980s, the us government relaxed the regulation of transportation through a series of new regulations, which was completely market-oriented.

There are essential differences between the marketization of traffic control in the United States and the chaos and vicious competition in the 19th century. First, under the premise of nearly a century of strict regulation and good order of the transportation market, the control is relaxed without chaos. Secondly, neglect is not to be neglected, such as strengthening the carrier's control over the adjustment of freight rates, as well as the control of destructive vicious competition, etc. Third, when the transport industry has developed to a considerable scale and strength, we should relax regulation, encourage enterprises to form some large cross-industry logistics enterprises through cooperation and merger, and promote the growth of multimodal transport. For example, after the deregulation of railways, highways and sea transportation, the merger of rail-oriented CSX company and sea-oriented a-cl company resulted in the second largest railway company and super-large barge company in the United States. Fourth, relax market access restrictions, strengthen the competition mechanism, adhere to the survival of the fittest. , for example, the national leading enterprises in the public transportation in JB. HUNT company by buying a railway service way, all kind of railway operators to cooperate with the United States, in price, location, service personnel and equipment configuration, cooperation agreement to provide services, the earliest implements container rail transport, won the growth of their own, also make the public rail transport in the country's most active transport way; Fifth, while relaxing the regulation of transportation market, the us government has strengthened the supervision and regulation of environmental protection and safety issues related to logistics development. A series of laws and regulations have been established, including the law on transport safety, the law on resource protection and recovery, the law on comprehensive environmental liability compensation and obligations, and the law on the transport of hazardous materials.

The development of American logistics industry is largely attributed to its dense and advanced comprehensive transportation network. The United States accounts for nearly half of the world's air traffic. In 2009, the international airport association ranked eight of the top 20 cargo airports in the world. American shipping has been maintained in the global forefront, Los Angeles port, New York port, long beach port are the world's major ports. The United States has more than 300,000 kilometers of track, the longest in the world. The total length of national highways in the United States is about 6.5 million kilometers, with more than 100,000 kilometers of expressways, ranking first in the world. The United States government attaches great importance to the construction of transportation network, at the same time, attaches great importance to the standardization of transportation equipment and the joint operation of various modes of transportation. To this end, the multimodal transport act was promulgated, and as early as 2000-2005 the strategic plan of the ministry of transport put forward that multimodal transport was one of the four characteristics of the us transportation system.

Although the logistics cost in the United States is not the lowest in the world, it has been steadily declining. The total logistics expenditure accounts for about 10% of GDP. Due to the early maturity of the transportation network in the United States, the transportation cost is basically in sync with the overall economic development, and the space for reduction is limited. The wide application of information technology, management software and automation facilities in the warehousing industry, as well as the popularity of "zero inventory" production, have become the main space to save logistics costs.

In the United States, enterprises, industry associations, schools and the government all pay attention to the training and training of logistics personnel, forming a multi-level, multi-channel logistics personnel training mechanism to meet the needs of the market. The most direct training for logistics talents comes from enterprises themselves. Large logistics enterprises such as UPS and FedEx, as well as some logistics distribution enterprises of ordinary scale have their own training institutions, which are responsible for training new employees and management personnel in logistics knowledge and skills. For example, in the UPS logistics distribution center, new employees are required to receive a week of business training after entering the company, and there will be irregular training later. The average training cost for each employee is several thousand dollars. Secondly, in addition to promoting the contact, cooperation and logistics research in the logistics industry, an important business of the industry association is to carry out logistics personnel training; Thirdly, school is an important channel for logistics talents training. Fourth, the government attaches great importance to the training of logistics talents. In addition to providing funds to encourage universities to set up logistics majors and courses, it also cooperates with universities and enterprises to train logistics talents.

Main experience: the driving force of park construction comes from enterprises' grasp of market demand and pursuit of economic benefits, rather than the need of the government.

The United States logistics park is positioned as an industrial park. Relying on warehouses and distribution, it embodies and plays the logistics function through the connection of various transportation modes. The main role of the government is to make decisions on investment in transportation infrastructure by giving support such as grants, loans, loan guarantees and tax incentives, or by investing in infrastructure projects through the management of the state investment and infrastructure bank. Only in a very few cases, the government for tax needs to build logistics park, the vast majority of cases is the enterprise put forward the construction application, the government to cooperate. At present, the investment and construction of logistics parks in the United States mainly adopts four modes: private investment, centralized investment of a core enterprise, investment of large professional logistics companies or non-professional logistics companies, and logistics parks formed by natural and traffic conditions.

In 2010, among the world's top five logistics enterprises, American companies occupied the third place. The influence and attraction of leading enterprises also strongly drove the development of logistics industry. The United States attaches great importance to the development of leading enterprises. UPS, for example, the aviation logistics giant international status and influence, a world-class logistics information technology and the management pattern, senior personnel, and the need for a large number of logistics personnel, development strategy and plan for a long time to build the global aviation logistics distribution center deployment and so on, and highly consistent with the government's logistics development planning, which under the government's strong support, the slope configuration for more manpower and material resources, open up the airport logistics park, set up the multimodal transport retrieval center, contributed to the UPS is the world port logistics base construction, which greatly promoted the rapid development of its own.

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