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Us trade in services statistics

2019-02-19 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Us trade in services statistics,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的服务贸易统计。美国是服务贸易最为发达的国家,其服务贸易规模和发展水平均居世界领先地位。作为服务贸易自由化的倡导者和推动者,美国也十分重视服务贸易统计工作,积累了较为成熟的经验,成为服务贸易统计领域的先导。美国的服务贸易统计体系被称作是世界上最完备的服务贸易统计体系。

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A new round of international industrial shift is shifting its focus from manufacturing to services. Cross-border investment in service industry is growing rapidly, and service trade has become the most rapidly developing field in international trade, and its contribution to economic growth is increasing day by day. The United States is the country with the most developed trade in services, and the scale and level of development of trade in services are among the world's leading countries. As an advocate and promoter of the liberalization of trade in services, the United States has also attached great importance to the statistical work of trade in services, accumulated relatively mature experience and become a pioneer in the field of trade in services statistics. The service trade statistics system of the United States is called the most complete service trade statistics system in the world.

The U.S. department of commerce's bureau of economic analysis is the principal agency for U.S. trade in services statistics under the international investment and trade in services survey act. In 1982, BEA began compiling the service trade statistics, more than 20 years, with the rapid development of the trade in services, to better grasp the situation of the international trade in services in the United States, meet the needs of the service and multilateral negotiations, BEA repeated adjustment of trade in services statistics method, make investigation scope of more comprehensive, the availability of data to further improve, more detailed classification. At present, the United States is the only country in the world that can compile international trade in services statistics according to two criteria.

The first of these two criteria is the fifth edition of the international monetary fund's balance of payments manual. Most countries in the world compile their own import and export statistics of service trade according to this standard. The other is the definition of service trade by wto in the general agreement on trade in services. It is more inclined to distinguish transaction attributes according to the principle of nationals. It includes not only cross-border transactions, but also the trade volume caused by overseas consumption, commercial existence and natural person flow. The two sets of standards overlap in statistical scope, and the data cannot be directly added. One difficulty is the commercial presence statistics, which refers to the service trade statistics provided by foreign affiliates established through transnational investment. The service trade statistics of the United States include BOP statistics, sales statistics of foreign affiliates and statistics of some natural persons.

BEA not only undertakes the statistical work of trade in services, but also publishes statistical data regularly. The first is a summary of monthly trade in goods and services published in the monthly press release international trade in U.S. goods and services. Trade in goods data is provided by the Commerce Department's census bureau, while trade in services data is provided by the BEA. The second is the release of detailed quarterly data on us international trade in goods and services on the quarterly balance of payments. The third is a detailed analysis of the previous year's annual data on us trade in services, published each October in the BEA's monthly survey of current businesses. Based on the BEA data, the itc conducts a comprehensive analysis of the trends in U.S. trade in services each year and publishes an annual report on the latest trends in U.S. trade in services. The two systems comprise us trade in services statistics

As mentioned above, the BEA compiles service trade data according to both IMF and WTO standards, so its investigation is also divided into two parts: cross-border trade in service and affiliate sales. Statistics on cross-border transactions are reflected in the current account of the balance of payments of the United States, while subsidiary sales statistics are included in the survey of foreign direct investment enterprises and American multinational corporations.

The cross-border trade in services in the United States is based on the classification of trade in services in the balance of payments. It also corresponds to the classification system jointly developed by OECD and eurostat, but it is more detailed than the classification in the balance of payments. The survey method generally combines questionnaire survey summary, relevant statistical data reference and economic index calculation.

In the questionnaire survey, the source of enterprise directory is the registration form of newly invested enterprises and the use of various management information resources. After obtaining the enterprise directory, the enterprises that need to be investigated shall be selected anew according to their business scale. A benchmark survey (a sample survey of companies with an annual turnover of $500,000 or more and a catalogue) is used. In five years on the basis of a benchmark survey, each year for the annual turnover of more than 1 million dollars in the enterprises to carry out a full investigation, for under $1 million turnover of enterprises to carry out sampling questionnaire survey, and then use data from relevant departments to investigate the measure data validation, adjustment, in order to determine the trade in services for the whole year data. On the basis of the annual trade in services data, the preliminary figures of trade in services for each month of the year are adjusted to produce the official monthly figures of trade in services for each month.

In the extrapolation part of the data, the United States makes full use of administrative and management records. As in cross-border transactions national statistics, the U.S. border with Mexico and Canada's international service trade statistics of domestic imports, while the other statistics on the number of imports as the country's exporters: in terms of tourism, education, medical treatment, use of airlines, immigration, education fund, insurance companies, etc. Provide the number of the entry and exit, student enrollment, basic tuition fee and lodging expenses, air fares and other data to measure tourism, education and health care costs, thus greatly save the cost of the investigation, reduce the burden of enterprises, to ensure the reliability of the data quality.

Subsidiary sales refer to sales made by subsidiary enterprises through transnational direct investment. Among them, export refers to the overseas sales of the foreign subsidiary of a foreign company, while import refers to the sales of the foreign subsidiary of a foreign company in the United States.

Similar to cross-border transaction statistics, affiliate sales statistics are based on a combination of benchmarking and catalogue sampling. However, as the affiliated organizations are divided into foreign companies in the United States and American companies in foreign countries, the statistics are divided into introversion statistics and extroversion statistics.

Note that inward FATS are only counted by fdi surveys. The service sector is just one part of the survey that covers the sectors of all fdi firms in the United States. The subject of the investigation is all foreign affiliates in which a foreigner owns or controls more than 10 percent of the voting shares or an equal interest. The fdi survey produced two sets of data on foreign affiliates:

Financial and operating data reflect the general operating performance of foreign affiliates, including assets and liabilities, value added: sales of goods and services. It also reflects external financial conditions: taxes, property, factories and equipment, employee compensation; Trade in American goods; Research and development activities: U.S. owned land and U.S. leased land.

Fdi position and balance of payments data reflect the currency and balance of payments flows of fdi between foreign affiliates in the United States; Patent revenue and payment; License fees and charges for services between each other.

Note the importance of extroversion depends on the United States multinational organization (MNC). The survey also covered all industries, with services being one. Since 1929, the United States has established the statistics of American transnational corporations, but at that time the statistics were limited to the foreign commercial assets controlled by American corporations. With the development of American transnational corporations and the advancement of global economic integration, the statistics of American transnational corporations can not only provide traditional balance of payments data, but also financial and operational data.

In terms of statistical methods, indicator system, statistical process and release table, the statistics of transnational corporations in the United States have reached the same level as that of foreign direct investment, and they are basically the same in specific operation.

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