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六种常见的essay逻辑结构

2019-10-14 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: 写作技巧

由于国外大学对于学生的批判性思维要求比较高,所以对于essay写作的逻辑结构也格外看重。不管是什么类型的essay,都得遵循一种逻辑结构,甚至在不同部分使用不同的逻辑结构。那么essay写作的逻辑结构有哪些呢?下面就给大家总结一下六种常见的essay逻辑结构。

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Six Logical Writing Structures

每一篇文章,无论是求职信、新闻文章还是虚构的短篇小说,都有自己的结构。

Every piece of writing, whether it is a cover letter for a job application, a news article, or a fictional short story, has its own structure.

把结构想象成一篇文章的骨架。

Think of structure as the skeleton of a piece of writing.

它是作品最基本的部分,所有这些都连接在一起,形成一个坚实统一的基础,在这个基础上,你——作家和创造者——将会创造出一些独特的东西。

It is the bare bones of the piece, all connected to form a solid, uniform foundation upon which you, the writer and the creator, will build something unique.

例如,人类都有几乎相同的基本骨骼。

Humans, for example, all have nearly identical basic skeletons.

然而,正是骨骼上的一切——肌肉、面部特征、形状、曲线、个性,甚至衣服和配饰——让每个人都独一无二。

However, it’s everything that goes on top of those skeletons-the muscles, the facial features, the shape, the curves, the personality, and even the clothes and accessories-that makes each human unique.

还记得每年秋天你回到小学的第一天就被分配了五段式短文吗?

Remember being assigned five-paragraph essays on your first day back to grade school every fall?

五段式短文通常会被命名为“我今年夏天做了什么”,这种短文会被要求包含一个引言、由三个支持段落组成的主体内容和一个结论。推荐阅读:五段式Essay及Outline写作步骤详尽解析

They’d usually be titled "What I Did This Summer," and they’d be assigned to have an introduction, three supporting paragraphs making up the body of the work, and a conclusion.

这种通用格式是六种通用写作结构的基础,它们既可以用于正式的书面交流,也可以用于非正式的书面交流。

This general format is the root of the six common writing structures that can be used for both formal and informal written communication.

第一类:范畴式结构

Categorical structure

范畴式结构并行地处理一系列同等重要的主题。

Or you might employ this technique in a letter explaining why you have decided to resign from your job.

你可以在求职申请的求职信中使用类似的结构,在求职信中,你可以描述所有能让你成为该职位理想候选人的特质。

You might use a similar structure in a cover letter for a job application, in which you describe all of your traits that would make you an ideal candidate for the position.

范畴化结构也可以称为直接了当结构——译者注

In a categorical structure, a series of equally important topics are addressed.

第二类:评估型结构

Evaluative structure

在评估Essay写作结构中,引入一个问题,然后对该问题写下权衡利与弊的内容。

In an evaluative essay writing structure, a problem is introduced, and then pros and cons are weighed.

在写电子邮件时,你可以使用一种评估结构来征求密友的建议。

You might employ an evaluative structure when writing an e-mail to ask a close friend for advice.

第三类:序时结构

Chronological structure

当你的焦点更多的是故事的实际讲述而不是最终结果时,采用序时结构。

When your focus is more the actual telling of the story than the end result, employ a chronological structure.

想想讲笑话。“三个人走进一家酒吧…”设置了一系列事件来传递最后一句妙语。

Think of joke telling. "Three guys walk into a bar…" sets up a sequence of events to deliver that final punch line.

同样,大多数短篇故事和小说都是按时间顺序写的。

Similarly, most short stories and novels are written chronologically.

第四类:比较型结构

Comparative structure

这种结构类似于评估,但它是在手头的情况有更多层次被权衡时使用的。

This structure is similar to evaluative, but it is used when there are more layers to the situation at hand that is being weighed.

如果你正在为辩论队写一篇演讲,你可以用一个比较结构来解释为什么你觉得自己的观点比对手的观点更强的各种原因。

You might use a comparative structure if you were writing a speech for a debate team to explain the various reasons why you feel your point is stronger than your opponent’s.

或者你可以用比较结构给编辑写一封信,解释你不同意市议会决定提高地方税的所有原因。

Or you might use a comparative structure to write a letter to the editor explaining all the reasons you disagree with the city council’s decision to raise local taxes.

第五类:顺序式结构

Sequential structure

这种Essay结构类似于序时式,但是在描述一个逐步的过程时,通常与操作方法一起使用。

This structure is similar to Chronological, but is normally employed with a how-to voice when a step-by-step process is being described.

如果你要写如何制作你著名的巧克力夹心蛋糕,或者如何享用你在乡下发现的丰盛的早餐,你会按顺序写,用“第一”、“下一步”、“然后”和“最后”这样的词来阐明你的说明。

If you were going to write about how to make your famous chocolate layer cake, or how to get to a great bed-and-breakfast you discovered out in the country, you would write sequentially, using words like, "First," "Next," "Then," and "Finally" to clarify your instructions.

第六类:因果结构

Causal structure

这种结构乍看起来可能类似于比较结构,但它的不同之处在于它不涉及权衡利弊的选项。

This structure might at first glance seem similar to Comparative structures, but it differs in that it does not involve weighing options against one another.

相反,它按顺序讨论某个特定主题或问题的原因和影响。

Instead, it discusses the causes and then the effects regarding a particular topic or issue in that order.

如果你正在写一篇关于事情是如何发生的文章,比如造成空气污染的因素,你可以使用这个结构。

You might use this structure if you were writing an article on how something has come about, such as the contributing factors to air pollution.

或者你可以在一封解释你为什么决定辞职的信中使用这种技巧。

Or you might employ this technique in a letter explaining why you have decided to resign from your job.

以上就是六种比较常见的Essay写作逻辑结构,希望大家在了解掌握之后,都能运用到写作当中。

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