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Avoid Marine Pollution and Over-Exploitation

2019-05-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Avoid Marine Pollution and Over-Exploitation,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了避免海洋污染和过度开发的问题。2016年,国际海洋学委员会发布了一份关于世界大型海洋生态系统现状的研究报告,指出人类活动加剧了世界大型海洋生态系统的恶化。而关于海洋污染的新闻越来越令人震惊。另外,人们过度开发海洋也造成了许多其他后果,对人类生存至关重要的海洋生物多样性造成了很大的威胁。

Avoid Marine Pollution,Over-Exploitation,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

As we all know, the ocean covers two-thirds of the earth. The ocean provides half the oxygen we need to breathe and plays a vital role in climate regulation. (n.d.1) Also, it provides people with jobs, medicines, attractions, entertainment and 20% of the total human protein intake.

On July 14. 2016, IOC (the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission under UNESCO) released a research on the current situation of the world's large Marine ecosystems, in which it stated that human activities have contributed to the worsening situation of the world's large Marine ecosystems. About 50% of the world's 66 large Marine ecosystems are overfished, and 64 large Marine ecosystems are affected by the warming of the sea. In addition, more than 50% of the world's coral reefs are threatened and the percentage will reach 90% by 2030. (Zhou 4)

More and more shocking news about marine pollution came out. Take plastic pollution for instance, there are reports show that more than 200 kilograms of plastic are dumped into the ocean every second, and more than 8 million tons of plastic remain in the ocean each year. The Green Peace stated that plastic has been directly blamed for the death of a wide range of animals and both massive trash and the smallest pieces of plastic can endanger marine life. . (n.d.1) Incidents of marine animals died of plastic pollution occurs all the time. The turtles often mistakenly eat the plastic as jellyfish. The plastic cannot be digested by the turtles, so it clog up in them and accumulate, eventually bursting the turtles. Some turtles will have to stop eating because of the pain and finally starve to death. Having a lot of plastic waste in their bodies, many turtles cannot dive into the sea anymore because of the buoyancy. Without effective improvements on plastic waste management, the cumulative quantity of plastic waste in the ocean is predicted to increase by an order of magnitude by 2025. (Jambeck JR, et al 6)

There are a lot of shocking Marine oil pollution incidents. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill on April 20, 2010 is so severe that it will take five years to clean up the spill. The ecological pollution caused by it is a disaster. It can start with “decrease in diversity, abundance and evenness of species” and then followed by “immediate disappearance of a community of sensitive species”(Jing 23).It not only destroys the entire local ecosystem but also spread with ocean currents, and the scale of polluted ocean and threatened marine life is massive. Though ocean has some self-purification ability, it can do little in face of oil pollution. One of the news photos showing a helpless sea bird totally covered with black oil shocked a lot of people.

There are also many other consequences caused by the over-exploitation of ocean. Marine biodiversity, which is of great importance to human existence, is facing increasing risks. Fisheries is the core of the livelihoods and food security of 200 million people and under the growing pressures of overfishing and ocean environmental degradation, the depletion of fisheries has become one of our most important concerns.

Ocean environment is so important and so closely related with everyone’s life. It provides about 50% percent of the oxygen that we need. It has abundant resources and provides us food, medicine. It is critical for the food security of 200million people in the world and accounts for 20% of the total human protein intake. If ocean environment is polluted and the ocean resources are depleted, everyone’s life will be affected. The ocean biodiversity is damaged and many of the amazing marine life will not be seen any more. There will be less and less beautiful coral reefs and ocean entertainments will not prosper any more. Due to the depletion of fisheries, the sustainable development of ocean is destroyed and the ecosystem of many ocean areas is damaged. The supply of fish and seafood become less, and the price of marine products get higher and higher. And for the people in the areas who rely on fisheries to get food, starvation can be a latent crisis, which could even lead to social unrest. More importantly, without a healthy ocean environment, the whole global environment and climate will also be affected, exacerbating the current environment problems.

If we keep ignoring the existing problems of marine pollution and over-exploitation, one day the situation mentioned above will truly come to us. And if we continue to pollute and over-exploit the ocean instead of protecting it, our children will not be able to see oceans and marine life as beautiful as we have ever seen.

Some people hold an opposite opinion. They think that we should make fully use of the marine resources for the benefit of the people. The ocean is so huge and we have only developed a little part of its whole scale, so it is not over-exploitation. And comparing to the whole Ocean area, the pollution is a little matter that we need not to be so nervous about. Instead of marine conservation, they think we should speed the development of ocean resources to satisfy people’s need.

These opinions neglect the basic fact that the current development of ocean resources and very unbalanced. It does not spread evenly in the whole ocean area but tends to be centralize in some places. And among these places, many are severely polluted and over-exploited. We are not calling to stop our ocean development and avoid the using the marine resources. We are appealing for a sustainable, balanced and proper way, to protect the ocean so that we can enjoy the benefits that it brings us better and longer. A sustainable exploitation of marine resources is very significant and must be done. (Monaco et al 126)

So, we must take actions now. The governments, organizations, and every single one of us, should be fully aware of the emergent situation of ocean pollution and start to change. All the countries should fully observe the convention on Marine conservation and make efforts to avoid ocean pollution in their regions. For each one of us, we can also do many things to help, we can reduce our use of plastic, help keep trashes away from the ocean, and when we see the occurrence ocean pollution by some person, companies or organizations, we can stop them and report to government. As long as everyone bear it in mind and starts to protect ocean environment, the worsening situation can be changed.

Works Cited

Greenpeace. “Oceans in the Balance: The crisis facing our waters” 6 May, 2013

< Oceans in the Balance | Greenpeace International  http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/publications/Campaign-reports/Oceans-Reports/Oceans-in-the-Balance/ >

Jambeck JR, et al. "Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean." Science (New York, N.Y.) 347.6223(2015):768.

Jing, Weiwen. "Effects of oil spill pollution on biological community and population and ecosystem recovery." Transactions of Oceanology & Limnology (2008).

Monaco, André, and P. Prouzet. Governance of Seas and Oceans. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2015.

Zhou, Chao. “The global marine health situation is alarming.” China Ocean News 20 July.2016:A4

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