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International business negotiation

2018-10-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- International business negotiation,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了国际商务谈判。国际间的商务交往是国际关系的重要内容,是和平时期国际交往的主旋律。国际商务谈判要面对的谈判对象来自不同国家或地区。由于世界各国的政治经济制度不同,各民族间有着迥然不同的历史和文化传统,各国客商的文化背景和价值观念也存在着明显的差异。因此,他们在商务谈判中的风格也各不相同。在国际商务谈判中,我们必须熟悉世界各国商人不同的谈判风格,采取灵活的谈判方式。

International business negotiation,国际商务谈判,essay代写,paper代写,作业代写

International business negotiations to face the target from different countries or regions. Due to the different political and economic systems in various countries in the world, different nations have different histories and cultural traditions. The cultural backgrounds and values of businessmen in various countries also have obvious differences. Therefore, their styles in business negotiations are also different. In international business negotiation, if you do not understand these different negotiation styles, you may make jokes, misunderstand, be disrespectful to others, and lose many opportunities for successful negotiation. If you want to be successful in business negotiation, you must be familiar with the different negotiation styles of businessmen from all over the world and adopt flexible negotiation methods.

The negotiation table is changeable, if negotiators want to control the development of the negotiation in the complex situation, they must make full preparations. Only when sufficient preparations are made, can we be flexible in the negotiation, so as to avoid the escalation of conflicts of interest in the negotiation.

Due to the wide range of international business negotiations, a lot of work needs to be prepared, including the analysis of the negotiators themselves and the analysis of the opponents, the composition of the negotiation team, elaboration of the negotiation objectives and strategies, as well as the simulation of the negotiation when necessary.

In the process of negotiation preparation, the negotiators should make a comprehensive analysis of their own situation and try to have a comprehensive understanding of their opponents. Self-analysis mainly refers to the feasibility study of the project. The understanding of the opponent's situation mainly includes the strength of the opponent, the policies, regulations, business customs, local customs and customs of the opponent's host country, as well as the situation of the negotiators of the opponent. At present, there are a lot of misunderstandings and investment loopholes in sino-foreign joint ventures, and even a few frauds committed by foreign investors. To a large extent, Chinese personnel do not know enough about their negotiating partners. We have explained this point in detail before, but we will not repeat it here.

To some extent, international business negotiation is the strength of negotiators of both sides. How effective the negotiation is often depends on the knowledge and psychological quality of the negotiators. Because of the wide and complex factors involved in international business negotiations, it is important to be well informed. In general, in addition to the necessary professional knowledge of international trade, international finance, international marketing and international business law, negotiators should also learn about psychology, economics, management, financial knowledge, foreign language, business customs and local customs of relevant countries, as well as the engineering technology related to the negotiation project. A more comprehensive knowledge structure helps to build the background of the negotiator's confidence and success.

In addition, as an international business negotiator, you should also have a psychological state of confidence, determination and adventure. Only in this way can you not bow down in the face of difficulties, not turn back in the face of risks, face setbacks and failures, and embrace success and victory.

Because international business negotiation is often a group confrontation, the negotiators can not achieve a happy ending only by their rich knowledge and skills, so they should choose the right person to form a team to negotiate with the opponents. The knowledge structure of each member of the negotiation team should be complementary to each other, so that they can be proficient in solving various professional problems, improve the efficiency of negotiation, and reduce the pressure of the main negotiators to some extent.

An important part of the preparation is setting the limits of your concessions. Price is a common problem in business negotiation, which is the focus of conflict of interest. If you are an exporter, you should determine the lowest price, if you are an importer, you should determine the highest price. Before the negotiation, both sides should determine a bottom line, beyond which the negotiation will be impossible. The determination of this bottom line must be reasonable and scientific. It should be based on investigation and research and actual situation. If the exporter sets too high a target or the importer sets too low a price, there will be fierce conflict in the negotiation, which will lead to the failure of the negotiation.

As an exporter, your offer should be between the lowest price you can accept and the highest price you think the other party can accept. It is important that your offer be realistic, credible, reasonable and prompt the other party to respond. A very favorable offer may not be the most appropriate, but it may send a negative message to the other side, making it hard for him to trust you and adopting a more aggressive strategy.

When you decide on an offer, you should consider the other person's cultural background, market conditions and business management. In some cases, a quick concession can be made after the offer is made, but in many cases it does not seem serious enough to build a good business relationship. So the offer must be careful, and leave enough room for choice.

Each negotiation has its own characteristics, requiring specific strategies and corresponding tactics. In some cases, the negotiator who first gives in May be perceived as weak, causing the other side to exert pressure for more concessions. In a different context, however, the same move could be seen as a sign of cooperation requiring a report. In international trade, a cooperative strategy can enable both parties to build a harmonious business relationship in the transaction, so that the negotiation is successful and all parties can benefit. But a purely cooperative relationship is also unrealistic. Certain competitive strategies are used when the other party seeks the best interests. Therefore, the combination of cooperation and competition in the negotiation will facilitate the smooth conclusion of the negotiation. This requires us to develop a variety of strategies before the negotiation to be flexible.

You need to plan ahead and make those concessions if necessary. Calculate costs and determine how and when to make concessions. It is important to consider several competitive strategies before a negotiation, in case the other party thinks your desire to cooperate is a sign of weakness, or if the other party is unreasonable and aggressive, change the negotiation strategy to obtain additional concessions.

The direct purpose of the negotiation is to obtain an agreement or a contract for all parties to perform. We call the person we are negotiating with a negotiating partner. There is a real antagonism between the two sides for the maximization of their own interests. Therefore, in the negotiation, we should use some negotiation skills properly and try our best to avoid the occurrence of intense conflict. The deadlock in the negotiation is a failure for both sides.

In the process of negotiation, the attitude of negotiators is neither too tough nor too soft. The former is easy to hurt the other side and lead to the breakdown of the relationship. There are those who play the role of "red face", who take a tough stance, and those who play the role of "white face", who take a moderate attitude. The "red face" is the lion's big mouth, bold and bold to stab each other's sensitive parts, be ruthless, argue a face red and neither give in. "Whiteface" is a kind attitude, gentle language, left room everywhere, once a deadlock, easy to mediate from it.

In trade negotiations, there is sometimes a tough, aggressive adversary who behaves in a variety of ways as patronizing. It is often very effective for such negotiators to adopt a strategy of delaying engagement, ineffectiveness and circumlocution, that is, through many rounds of tug-of-war, to make the arrogant negotiators feel tired and tiresome and gradually lose their edge, and at the same time, to turn their negotiating position from passivity, and to fight back when their opponents are exhausted.

In a negotiation, if a request is made to you, even if you can meet it all, you don't have to immediately come clean about your answer.

Let the other side open the mouth to speak first, indicate all request, our side is patient to listen to after hearing, seize its flaw, launch an attack again, force its submission. Sometimes concessions can be made first on local issues in exchange for concessions on major issues.

Depending on the situation of the negotiating partner, offer small favors and make concessions or a final agreement. Dinner parties, sightseeing, gift giving, etc., are common occurrences in social life, but they actually convey friendly signals to each other, which is a kind of delicate lubricant.

Excessive demands, wild price or indiscriminate price are the most taboo in negotiations, which makes the negotiations full of explosive atmosphere and hostile situation. Both parties should be considerate and considerate to each other, so that the negotiations can proceed smoothly and achieve a happy result.

Since both sides want to maximize their own interests in the negotiation, although we can avoid the deadlock in the negotiation to some extent and eventually break down, sometimes the conflict of interests is unavoidable. At such times, only effective measures can be taken to resolve the dispute, so that the negotiations can be completed smoothly and successfully.

The conflict of interest in negotiation often lies not in objective facts, but in people's different ideas. In business negotiations, when the two sides disagree, both sides usually consider the issues according to their own thinking, which leads to the deadlock in the negotiations.

In the negotiation, if there is any disagreement between the two parties, you can try the following ways to deal with the problem: I might as well consider the issue from the other side's standpoint. Please don't reason about the other person's intentions. Discuss each other's opinions and opinions. The search for a surprising opportunity to resolve the conflict must make the other party feel they are part of the process of negotiating an agreement, which is a reflection of both sides' thinking. Always treat the other person with respect.

A change of perspective is probably one of the most important skills in post-conflict negotiations. Different people see things differently. People tend to view facts with established views, and often reject views that contradict themselves. Exchange different opinions and opinions. Considering problems from the other side's standpoint does not mean that one party should follow the other's way of thinking to solve the problem, but this way of thinking can help you find the crux of the problem and finally solve the problem.

A lot of people do this when they're young: how do you get a fair share of a cookie that you share with your sister? The answer is to divide it into two parts. The criterion is that you think you can get all the parts, and then let your sister choose. This is a classic win-win situation. Like the solution to this intellectual problem, the key to resolving conflicts of interest is to find a win-win solution.

The result of the negotiation is not "you win, I lose" or "you lose, I win". The outcome of a negotiation should give both sides a sense of "winning." What kind of negotiation means, negotiation methods and negotiation principles should be adopted to achieve the outcome of the negotiation is beneficial to all parties involved in the negotiation, which is the substantial pursuit of commercial negotiation. Therefore, in the face of the conflict of interests between the two parties, the negotiators should pay attention to and try to find out the real interests of both parties, and on this basis, apply some methods agreed by both parties to seek the realization of maximum interests.

Win-win should exist in most negotiations. Creative solutions meet the needs of both parties. This requires both sides to be able to identify common interests. Every negotiator should keep in mind that every negotiation has potential common interests. The common good means business opportunities; The emphasis on common interests can make the negotiations smoother. In addition, negotiators should pay attention to the existence of compatible interests of both sides.

Separate the creation of the scheme from the judgment of the scheme. Negotiators should first create a solution and then make a decision. A more effective approach is to use what is known as "brainstorming" group discussions, where the members of the negotiating team inspire ideas and create ideas and attention among themselves, rather than considering whether the ideas are good or bad and whether they can be achieved. It then evaluates the ideas and ideas that are created over time, ultimately determining the specific options for negotiation. In cases where the negotiating parties are long-term partners, the two parties can also conduct such group discussions together.

Use your imagination and expand your options. In the group discussion above, the most common problem for the participants is that they feel that they are looking for the best solution. In fact, what you need to do in the imagination phase is to maximize your options. At this stage, negotiators should analyze the same issue from different perspectives. You can even reach different agreements on certain issues and terms of the contract. If a permanent agreement cannot be reached, a provisional agreement can be reached; You can't have an unconditional agreement, you can have a conditional agreement, etc.

Consider the other person and make it easy for him or her to make decisions. If you can make the other side feel that the solution is legitimate, legitimate, and fair to both sides, then it's easy for the other side to make a decision, and your solution succeeds.

In the negotiation process, after knowing each other's interests, the two sides racked their brains to seek various mutually beneficial solutions for both sides, and also attached great importance to developing relations with the other side. But intractable conflicts of interest remain difficult to resolve. In this case, the two sides are at loggerheads over a particular issue of interest and do not give in to each other, even if the emphasis on "win-win" does not help. At this point, the use of objective standards plays a very important role in business negotiations.

For example, for price problems frequently encountered in negotiations, when both parties cannot reach an agreement, they can refer to some objective criteria, such as market value, replacement cost, depreciation as book value, etc. This method is very effective in actual negotiations and can achieve results quickly without hurting the peace. The conflict of interest on price can be solved this way, and other problems can also be solved by objective criteria. However, it is important to grasp that the basic principles should be fair and effective, scientific and precedent-setting.

In the process of negotiation, the negotiators should also pay attention to the following questions:

Establish standards of fairness. In business negotiations, the objective criteria generally should be followed: market value, scientific calculation, industry standard, cost, effectiveness, reciprocity, mutual principle, etc. The selection of objective criteria should be independent of the wishes of both parties, fair and legal, and feasible in both theory and practice.

Establish a fair method of dividing interests. If commodity trade is priced by futures market, trade on basis; In the investment enterprise where two shareholders hold equal shares, the general manager is appointed to adopt the term rotation method.

The problem of dividing the negotiating interest is limited to finding objective basis. During the negotiation, ask the other party: what is the theoretical basis for your proposal? Why this price? How did you figure out the price?

Be good at expounding oneself reason, also accept the other party reasonable and proper objective basis. Be sure to convince your opponent with rigorous logic. The other side thinks the standard of fairness must be fair to you. Use your agreed-upon standards to limit the other's asking price, and even two different standards can be compromised.

Don't give in to pressure. The harshness that comes from a negotiating partner can be manifold: bribery, ultimatums, submission under the pretext of trust, throwing out unyielding fixed prices. But in any case, have the other person state a reason for the objective criteria to be followed.

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