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北美作业代写:The rohingya problem

2018-03-26 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- The rohingya problem,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了罗兴亚问题。从去年八月份起,缅甸若开邦的罗兴亚武装分子实施多起暴力袭击事件,造成严重的社会恐慌。为平息骚乱,恢复社会秩序,缅甸政府军与武装分子发生激烈冲突。冲突造成数百人死亡,大量房屋被毁,超过50万罗兴亚难民逃往孟加拉国。此次冲突导致的难民危机严重威胁了地区安全,引起国际社会的高度关注,缅甸政府被推入国际舆论的漩涡。此次冲突并非偶然,是信仰佛教的缅甸民众与信仰伊斯兰教的罗兴亚人之间矛盾长期积累的结果。

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Myanmar is a traditional buddhist country with a strong sense of identity among the various ethnic groups of Buddhism, and the rohingya are the largest Muslim ethnic group in rakhine state in northern myanmar. The end of the 18th century, the British colonial rule in Burma, religious factors and the common role of colonial oppression all nationalities in myanmar and the rohingya people contradictions, deteriorating since then more than one hundred years, formed a "Luo Xingya problem".

After the first British and Burmese war in 1824, myanmar and the United Kingdom signed the treaty of yangdabo, which was annexed to the British Indian province of Bengal, under the jurisdiction of the British. In order to change the backward economic situation, the colonial authorities carried out the "land grant" system and developed a lot of wasteland, and the muslims in the chittagong area moved into rakhine state as a seasonal temporary worker. In 1885, the United Kingdom fully realized its occupation of Burma, and implemented the policy of "indo-myanmar". More than one million indians entered the open area to replace the local landlords. These Indian muslims are seen by Burmese buddhists as accomplices in British colonial rule, and their brutality and bad behavior have provoked resentment in myanmar. Add to that the fact that the rohingya and Indian muslims are very hard to distinguish between the two, and the Burmese are turning their hatred towards the Indian muslims to the rohingya.

To facilitate the unified management of the colonies, the British government adopted a policy of religious demography and national identification. According to religious belief, people's identity is defined, and if people are divided into two categories, namely buddhist and Muslim, they break the loose sense of identity. In 1933, the British authorities excluded the rohingya ethnic group from the 135 ethnic groups in myanmar, and the rohingya were marginalized. At this point, the policy of "national differentiation" of British colonists laid a curse on the continuing conflict between the Buddha and the Iraqi people.

During world war ii, Japan invaded Burma and used the rising nationalist movement to foster a patriotic army of rakhine buddhists. In response, Britain established a mujahideen, called fifth column, in April 1942, in a stand-off with the patriotic forces. The fifth brigade has taken a crazy revenge and brutal massacre of buddhists, many of whom have been forced to leave their homes. After the defeat of the Japanese army, the struggle between the rohingya and the buddhist was still fierce, and a retaliatory counterattack was formed in the area where there was an "tit for tat".

Early, myanmar's independence, the government for the purpose to maintain national unity in the form of law admits Luo Xingya clan is a native ethnic group of Burma, respect the rohingya people religious faith and their political rights.

In 1961, the government established Buddhism as a state religion, and the conflict between the rohingya and the government kept rising. Since then, successive governments have reversed their previous easing policies, denying their status as Burmese citizens and giving them political rights. This unequal national policy provoked the rohingya to seek independent rebel forces, which in turn increased the government's rejection and suppression of the rohingya. In 1964, for example, the government of newen cancelled the broadcasting of horses by the border special administrative region and the rohingya language. In 1974, myanmar promulgated a new constitution and refused to recognize the rohingya as ethnic minorities. In 1978, the government carried out an immigration investigation called the dragon king project on the Burmese border, fighting against the anti-government activities of ethnic minorities, and between 200,000 and 250,000 rohingya fled to Bangladesh.

A large number of buddhist temples and pagodas were built in the rohingya area after the government came to power, and the mosque was heavily damaged by the army, which led to armed conflict.

After the government came to power, the government strongly denied that the rohingya were a people of myanmar. Since the democratic transition in myanmar, the rohingya insurgency has become more serious. Established in 2016, Luo Xingya Muslim Luo Xingya salvation army ", in the northern rakhine state launched many anti-government armed riot, gradually evolved into the current cause the extensive concern of international conflict.

After the independence of myanmar, the "great Burma doctrine" was promoted in the governance of ethnic relations in China, which further combined the influence of Buddhism and nationalism. Burma's open political transition process since 2011, military forces gradually fade out Burma's political arena, the civilian government took after did not relieve tension and hostility between the domestic various religious groups, instead of growing out of control and Buddhism for myanmar nationalist forces and Luo Xingya the separatist forces looked up and create the conditions.

The continued marginalization of the rohingya in myanmar's mainstream society has promoted the further integration of pan-islamism and rohingya separatism. The islamist forces used the rohingya to seek political autonomy and to control and infiltrate them. The extremist groups and terrorist forces in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh provide assistance, including financial support, personnel liaison, recruitment and training.

Luo Xingya problem is complicated, involving regional security, religion, ethnic conflicts, and other fields, not only for the country to produce heavy blow in many respects, also with the problem of spillover has a regional and international influence, left myanmar in strife-torn situation.

To undermine myanmar's political and social stability. The conflict that has occurred in myanmar since August 2017 has been very easy to stir up domestic contradictions and have a major impact on myanmar's domestic politics. First, it is a serious threat to myanmar's social stability. The armed violence by the Burmese government is defined as a terrorist attack, opinion in Burma, all filled with the "Luo Xingya terrorists", "Bengali immigrants are terrorists" and "they set up a terrorist training camp in myanmar" such as news and articles. Such claims undoubtedly exacerbate local tensions and fears, which are detrimental to social stability. At the same time, the infiltration of the rohingya by pan-islamist and extremist forces has increased the risk of international terrorist attacks in myanmar. Second, it profoundly affected the process of democratic reform and transformation in myanmar. The international community has exerted pressure on myanmar's political transition and has a negative impact on the democratic political transition in myanmar.

Hindering myanmar's economic development. If the state economy is weak and the public transport infrastructure is backward, the public will have no access to any public goods or services. In order to use local resources to develop the economy, the government of myanmar has opened a special economic zone in rakhine state, with an estimated investment of $90 billion, which requires a peaceful situation to be guaranteed. However, the continuing violence since 2017 has made it difficult for rakhine state to develop its economy. If the government can't control the situation of unrest, rakhine state on the economy may fall into "the poorer, the more disorderly, the poor" vicious cycle, delay the process of development of special economic zones, to make the economy even backwards. Damaging myanmar's diplomatic image. Accompanied by prominent refugee crisis, the impact of Luo Xingya problem "spillover" to its neighboring countries, make the relations with neighboring countries covered with a layer of uncertain factors, and the processing aung SAN suu kyi, the government partly damaged Burmese foreign image. According to the United Nations, since August 2017, the number of Luo Xingya muslims fled from Burma Bangladesh has more than 500000, it was the largest in the region for decades refugee migration. Refugee camps in Bangladesh are already overcrowded and overburdened, and it is difficult to accept new rohingya refugees. In the face of this situation, the two countries are playing like a ball. Potential conflicts between myanmar and Bangladesh are escalating. If the rohingya problem is not properly addressed, myanmar's diplomatic image will surely suffer.

Threaten the security of neighboring countries. Since August 2017, countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Bangladesh have experienced a number of religious conflicts that are directly linked to armed conflict, causing instability in the situation. In the context of the spread of religious terrorism in the Middle East, the possibility of using religious hatred to develop terrorist forces is escalating, endangering the security of neighboring countries. On February 3, 2009, nearly a thousand residents of the main destination of myanmar's smuggling operation, tiannan, held a demonstration against the "landing" of all forms of refugees. In addition, the Muslim separatism in southern Thailand power has always been a trial to the government of Thailand, the Thai military accused rohingya people to cover with migrant workers, in fact collaborating with tynan Muslim separatists. In addition, the influx of refugees has brought economic pressure to neighboring countries, and Bangladesh, with its backward economy and large population, is more overwhelmed.

Weaken asean cohesion. Asean has always pursues the non-interference principle, but in 2017 the United Nations general assembly on the association of south-east Asian nations (asean) has issued a joint statement, condemning the rakhine state all violence, Malaysia's prime minister, buji say Burma's military action is "genocide". In Indonesia's largest islamic countries, local protesters for days outside the myanmar embassy in Jakarta sit-in, demanding the Nobel committee scrap aung SAN suu kyi Nobel peace prize. Luo Xingya exacerbated by Burma's image between islamic countries in asean, likely causing a rift in myanmar and relevant asean countries, affect the unity of the association of south-east Asian nations (asean), and asean principle of non-interference in Luo Xingya refugees miserable human rights front inside and outside will be under more pressure.

Promoting international terrorism. 2017 armed violence incidents of "Luo Xingya salvation army" although denied contact with terrorist groups, but the Burmese government, with its leaders accepted the military training in abroad, and USES violence attack on the grounds that its qualitative as a terrorist organization. Domestic anti-terrorism forces arrested in Bangladesh has been outlawed terrorist organization members of the council for the promotion of "jihadists", in the process of trial, the chief explosives expert jha, toure said jemaah islamiyah promotion association and Luo Xingya unity organization has maintained the close coordination of the action, and since the 1980 s, Luo Xingya unity organization are also continuously provide training for more radical religious organization in Bangladesh.

To cause great power interference. Exclusive, Thailand and Bangladesh to refugees and Luo Xingya some relationship between militant groups and al qaeda is dense show that Luo Xingya refugee problem is likely to be spread out, it will cause power interference, make the competition power of the victim. In April 2010, the state department posted an urgent resolution on its website calling for emergency assistance to the rohingya, a Burmese refugee living in Bangladesh. Southeast Asia is the region that the United States has long coveted since the cold war, and is a key point of U.S. global strategy. The reason why the us has not imposed sanctions on myanmar at this stage is because Mr Trump has focused on domestic construction since taking office and has no spare energy to take care of overseas affairs. But this does not rule out the possibility that the us is infiltrating southeast Asia with "anti-terrorism" and "human rights".

Affect China's interests. China is in discussions with myanmar about the construction of sittwe. The 200 nautical miles to the south of the city is the kyu port, which is of great strategic significance. Drift to the starting point of the oil and gas pipelines in her honey haired mudd island special economic zones, and in the end of the main railway port is located in her honey haired, for China's imports from the Middle East energy provides an alternative route, thus no longer via the malacca strait and south China sea. China attaches great importance to the myanmar kyauchi port and regards the project as part of its "One Belt And One Road" infrastructure investment plan. Therefore, rakhine's military conflict and political turmoil will pose a direct threat to China's economic interests in the region.

The problem of rohingya is mixed with complex historical and realistic factors. The solution of the rohingya problem cannot be achieved overnight. It needs to be coordinated and integrated to solve the problem. The specific performance is as follows:

The two sides of the conflict have exercised restraint and active dialogue. For both sides in the conflict, the Burmese government and Luo Xingya salvation army should maintain a "prudent restraint, active dialogue" attitude, in the process of peace talks must coexist with compromise, tolerance, real state of mind. A month after the salvation army declared a ceasefire, the Burmese authorities refused to accept it, leaving the conflict unresolved. In fact, the Burmese government and military can't solve the disputes, hope scotched and to consider the short term and the rohingya people compromise and coexistence, to address the recent and Luo Xingya existing between the divided leadership, and make the upper Luo Xingya interests can be effectively protected. The government of myanmar should be the first to abandon the practice of "talking and talking" and "promoting peace talks" in order to gradually establish political mutual trust. Upper Luo Xingya the salvation army also need to understand that any a sovereign state government would tolerate the "one country", must make a compromise, give up against government controlled area and give up autonomy independent unrealistic demands, etc. Therefore, both sides of the conflict must take the initiative to engage in dialogue, further discuss the possibility of solving the problem, and avoid the expansion of tragedy.

Promoting the peace process with economic development. Violent conflicts and terrorist attacks often occur in areas of poverty and backwardness, as demonstrated by the conflict in the northern state of rakhine. Therefore, the solution of the rohingya problem lies in the development of the regional economy and the development of the peace process in rakhine state. For the Burmese government, if in the maintenance of peace in open areas at the same time, should take advantage of myanmar's South Asia "crossroads" geographical advantages, a policy, the balance of powers have been stepped up to Burma's infrastructure construction and resources development in southwest China, a large number of attracting foreign investment in infrastructure development, tourism and other tertiary industry, adjust the economic structure of a single. In addition, the government should allocate the resources provided by the state equally, so that all ethnic minorities can enjoy the benefits of economic development and promote the process of national reconciliation through economic development. The international community should invest in a number of aid development projects in the region to help local people cope with their livelihoods, achieve self-sufficiency and improve their living conditions.

The international community has urged a peaceful settlement and multi-channel development of refugee resettlement. First of all, the United Nations as the most important international organization, should provide dialogue platform for both sides in the conflict, the function of maintaining peace and security, and urged both sides to resolve conflicts peacefully, and practical implementation of humanitarian aid. Second, asean should strengthen coordination on the issue of refugees. Although the association of south-east Asian nations (asean) in the existence Luo Xingya internal divisions, but if I can in non-traditional security fields such as refugee problem obtains the breakthrough on the political cooperation, for the association of south-east Asian nations (asean) extension organization form, further realize the regional cooperation in order to solve the problem must be promote members internal effect. Finally, international organizations should unify the criteria for the treatment of refugees from a humanitarian perspective. China plays a major role. For China, first of all, as a regional power, in under the condition of not interfering in the internal affairs of myanmar, equality and friendly attitude to coordinate the positions of two sides, for both sides to build the bridge of communication, avoid complicating the problem. Second, we should provide humanitarian assistance to refugees, contribute to the solution of the current refugee problem and establish a good image of a responsible major country. Again, use the sino-burmese oil pipeline development project at the port of her honey haired float if help drive economic development, improve the rohingya people living environment, set up China's prestige in open area, in order to obtain in the future is stronger and more lasting influence on Burma.

The rohingya problem contains a profound historical background, and there is no absolute right or wrong. At the same time it also belongs to the interior of Burma, the stakes could even shake myanmar's national foundations, intervention and interference of the outside world tends to lead to problems of complexity and uncertainty. Therefore, we should use of history, development and objective view of the problem, to realize the west so-called "human rights and humanitarian disaster" the real motivation behind, for the problem solving countermeasures. At the critical stage of the political democratization reform in myanmar, whether the myanmar government can effectively handle ethnic conflicts such as the rohingya issue will have a profound impact on the development of the country. At the same time, along with Luo Xingya problem "spillover effect" gradually strengthen, its safety and ethnic problems on southeast Asian countries also poses a challenge, especially the global religious extremism, revival of the moment, guard against extremist forces to the penetration of southeast Asia is particularly urgent. As a friendly neighbor and regional power of myanmar, China should play a constructive role and work with the international community to find a way out for the solution of the rohingya problem.

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