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留学生作业代写:International Trade in the Textile and Clothing Industry in Turkey

2017-05-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Paper范文

本文是一篇优秀的paper代写范文- International Trade in the Textile and Clothing Industry in Turkey,供大家赏析学习,这篇论文讨论了土耳其纺织服装业的国际贸易。土耳其的纺织服装业在制造业和国际贸易中发挥了重要作用。土耳其纺织服装业凭借其悠久的生产传统和最具创新性的技术运用,占据着绝对优势,可以克服其他国际时装业所面临的问题。而随着加入欧盟,土耳其将拥有更多的客户,但也面临更严峻的国际竞争。

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I. Introduction

Turkey’s textile and apparel industry has played an important role in the manufacturing and export sectors in the Turkish industry. With its centuries' old manufacturing tradition and the utilisation of the most innovative technologies, the Turkish textile and apparel industry has some comparative advantages to overcome the problems experienced by other global fashion industry. Analyses showed that increased international competition of the industry could impact of the degree of industry’s competitiveness. This paper will also analyse the effect of the EU on this industry because Turkey mainly exports to the EU and its accession will surely change the current situation. How the Turkish workers and managers in firms in the clothing and textile industry react and cope with the future challenge is essential in whether the industry can thrive and further drive the Turkish economy to prosperity in the future.

II. Background and Trends

Apparel and textile industry as one of the most successful sectors. The apparel and textile industry is about 16% total manufacturing value added in 2009. From 2002 onwards, although the percentage had decreased gradually from 26% to 16% in 2009, the apparel and textile industry remains an important sector for the Turkish economy (The World Bank). In 2010, the GDP per capita for Turkey was $9890. The textile industry was 8.5% and the clothing industry was 11% of total exports. (Karaalp& Yilmaz, 2013). The textile industry growth rate has been slower compared to apparel industry growth rate and Turkey ranked 9th in textile export and 5th in clothing export. Although Turkey mainly trades with the EU, its productivity is low compared to EU. Employment is mainly concentrated in the small and medium enterprises (SME) for the clothing and textile industry and 61.1% employment in the industry is with the SME. (Smid&Taskesen, 2002)

III. Assessing Competitiveness using Porter’s Diamond Model

The porter’s diamond model analyses an industry through four different factors: 1) firm rivalry, structure and strategy 2) related industry and regional trends 3) production factors and 4) demand. First, I will perform the SWOT analysis for firm rivalry, structure and strategy. The strength for this industry include the low labor costs compared with other countries in the EU, the mass production of domestic cotton, the use of advanced technology, the fast delivery time, and the favourable tax policy to trade with the EU. The weakness for the industry is that finance for the future might not be sufficient for a continued and sustainable development in the clothing and textile industry. With the current slowdown of the economic growth rate, it might not be feasible to leverage all the opportunities for this industry to grow. Opportunities for this industry include better management, enhancing the supply chain management, and putting more efforts into marketing. The main threat is with the other third world countries who can manufacture at an even lower cost. If they enter the market, Turkey, although it is an early market entrant, have to find ways to beat its competitors.

The SWOT analysis on the related industries show that Turkey has many strengths. There is a large potential for the clothing and textile industry to cooperate with the painting, chemicals, and accessories industry. The main strength lies in the research and development of those industries. The weakness is that right now, the interaction between those industries is not large. Opportunities exist for those industries to cooperate and generate synergies if the government is willing to help and encourage them to do business together. The threat comes from the general economic environment in Turkey.

The analysis on the production and supply side of this industry showed some weaknesses. The main strength is that education is largely present to make sure that in the future, skilled labor will be suffice for the industry. However, weaknesses such as low capital level, knowledge infrastructure and a fragmented industry can all negatively impact the industry. The opportunities lies in how the EU can help the industry to get better access to customers and suppliers. Threat lies in high technology because cotton yarn export has moved to more value adding products. So product diversification and enhancement is needed. (Smid&Taskesen, 2002)

The demand for the Turkish clothing and textile industry had increased in both quality and quantity. The EU wants to import from Turkey because of its high price to quality ratio, fast delivery, and diversified products. The strength is that demand can increase even more if the Turkish can cater to the customers more and produce to meet their demands. A weakness is that Turkey can have little influence on the EU, a large customer. Opportunities mainly lies in how Turkey can increase their product quality. A threat lies in the policies such as trade restrictions. If unfavourable conditions and policies were introduced, many firms exporting those clothing will be negatively affected. With the abolished textile quotas, more international trade were realized.

IV. Impact of European Union policies

In 1996, the Custom Union went into force and as a result, trade policies were significantly influenced. Turkey had to lift all the restrictions on imports from the EU and the import figure increased 34.7% from 1995 to 1996. Two years afterwards, Turkey’s exports to the EU increased from USD 12.2 billion to 13.4 billion and imports from the EU increased from USD 24 billion to 24.8 billion, creating a trade deficit. (Smid&Taskesen, 2002) Turkey also signed free trade agreements with countries that the EU had contracted with after the Custom Union. The overall impact of the Custom Union is that Turkey became more open to the world, yet its vulnerability was also exposed to the world. Asian countries that can produce at a cheaper cost also started to import into Turkey, hurting the domestic manufacturing and production.

V. Summary of Effects from accession

If Turkey joins the EU in the future, the market access will see more exports within EU and imports from low wage nations will increase in short term. Customers can enjoy the clothing in more variety, at a cheaper price and in better quality. However, the drawback is whether Turkey can keep the manufacturing price at a low level to compete with third world markets. As for the suppliers of the industry, they will probably increase the costs due to environment policies. The quality of its workers will be significantly impacted if Turkey joins the EU because the industry will see the shift from low cost and unskilled workers to more diversified and skilled workers to produce products with high quality to satisfy the customers. If the accession is successful, there will be more trading activity between Turkey and the rest of the world.

VI. Conclusions

Currently, the textile and clothing industry in Turkey is standing at a significant position with advantages in domestic production. However, the overall economic decline would present a challenge to the industry due to insufficient funds for those small and medium enterprises to flourish. The industry should see more cooperation, more research and development, and an enhanced supply chain to be more competitive. With the accession into the EU, Turkey will be more open to resources such as more customers but will also face more severe international competition.

Reference

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