International Communication Policy--Paper代写范文
2016-12-21 来源: 51Due教员组 类别: Paper范文
Paper代写范文:“International Communication Policy”，这篇论文主要描述的是世界各国都对电视节目等媒体传播方式进行了监管，让社会媒体不再成为个人利益的扬声器，媒体传播的力量带动了思想的传播，其中电影就是媒体传播的主要形式之一，人们可以通过电影来传播所想要传播的信息，电影的观众在观看电影的过程中接触电影所希望传播的观点。
International Communication Policy between 1988 and 1991, the amount of American television series aired in Europe increased form 36% to 56%, despite increased regulatory efforts. (De Bens, et al 1992) 80s: 65% of film revenue in France provided by Hollywood; by 2004 still 47% Hollywood (84% in the UK) The US exports $725 million of TV and Film to the Netherlands; imports $2 million from there (both Thussu, 2007) foundations of policy free speech (question of for whom, to what extent?) is it the rights of the individual speaker or the rights of the collective to speak and hear that matter?
Broader ‘right to communicate’ has been proposed lead to content regulations who can speak and when public interest pluralism) diversity, access, objectivity pluralism has been interpreted as ‘marketplace of ideas’– connecting back to ‘free flow’ foundations of policy regulation can be aimed at content, structure (conditions of the industry) regulation can be aimed at infrastructure (functioning of the channels of communication) in telecom – principle of Universal service certain big issues – like the balance of public vs private media – cut across all these areas European vs US tradition – Europe: broadcasting too important to be left to the free market Braman notes: “media policy is co-extant with the field of information policy, defined as all law and regulation dealing with an information production chain that includes information creation, processing, flows and use” media policy telecommunications infrastructures information access cultural expression globalization and digitization blur traditional boundaries what are cultural products? how should they be treated? resistance / identity is local resistance to global forces possible? Identity ? how to maintain a distinctive cultural, national, social identity. how do you define yourself, when the tools of definition ? communication media ? are out of your hands?
Example – Star TV remote villages where people who have never used mass media before are now gathering around the TV every evening to watch soap operas and other imported shows. The personal communication between family members and community members that used to occupy that time is now lost. Is this progress? Young people abandon traditional behaviour and seek to be like TV personalities and characters. Progress? Terrestrial Transmission regulation begins with RADIO SPECTRUM natural resource, available to all, owned by none limited resource, expanded by digital tech. a transnational resource - requires international regulation major regulatory body, ITU (International Telecommunications Union) who is going to allocate the frequencies for whom? 90% of spectrum taken up by 10% of countries leaving 90% of the worlds population with 10% of the spectrum Satellite Transmission launch services, satellite operators, telecom companies, satellite brokers, broadcasters footprints, transponders international relay, domsat, DBS regulatory issue: national sovereignty should there be PRIOR CONSENT for transmission? Protection local production as means of preserving local identity and preserving local industry (A positive mechanism) TAX imported cultural products, i.e.
Foreign films, and use to fund local production Europe and many individual countries doing this (A negative mechanism) QUOTA TVWF international treaties on trade: NAFTA is culture a good to be traded? Canada insisted that culture be exempted regulation has failed to prevent a flood of American programs on Canadian cable, to the detriment of local production and cultural identity (Starowicz, 1993 ) international treaties on trade: GATT / WTO GATT: negotiated 86-93 US forced all other nations to drop subsidies for agriculture; France and other countries said no to negotiating on cultural industries; US backed off; major victory for Europeans GATT accepts that a quota system for cultural industries is acceptable, even if a country claims to support ‘free trade’ WTO took over from the GATT in 1995 – by ‘facilitating trade services’ institutionalised free flow of information as international policy Now key issue is WTO agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPs); overtaken by widespread public file-sharing international treaties on trade: TVWF 1989 - EU Television without Frontiers Directive (Green Paper); place a quota on TV programs - at least 50% must be EU origin if 51% or more is EU, 49% may be US Rule was 50% ‘where practicable’; many broadcasters evade this 10 % from other than the broadcasters France: programming must be at least 40 %, French 20 % must be European, and 40 % other sources want to increase exportation of European films - only 20% go beyond national borders To allow movement of TV across borders, but a member state can ban broadcasting from a foreign territory when the purpose is to bypass rules that would have applied had the broadcaster been operating within that state Protection who deserves protection, who does not? tension between economic policy competition, consumer satisfaction, efficiency, relations with other countries and political and cultural policy diversity of viewpoints, media system that serves local communities, preservation of culture and language.