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The shale gas revolution in the United States

2019-03-18 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The shale gas revolution in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的页岩气革命。页岩气是指主体位于暗色泥页岩或高碳泥页岩中的天然气聚集,主要以吸附或游离状态存在。美国页岩气储量丰富。21世纪后,技术的重大突破导致页岩气开采成本降低、环境污染相对减少,美国的页岩气产量实现了大幅增长。由于页岩气和页岩油的大规模商业开发降低了工业生产所需能源和基础原料的成本,美国制造业产品价格竞争的优势突出,这不仅实现了美国政府再工业化的经济发展目标,而且促进了美国出口贸易、刺激了经济恢复,缓解了自金融危机以来美国社会持续高涨的社会矛盾问题。

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Shale gas refers to the natural gas accumulation mainly located in dark mud shale or high carbon mud shale, which mainly exists in the state of adsorption or free. As one of the new energy resources, shale gas is a significant unconventional natural gas resource. It can not only supplement the shortage of conventional natural gas energy supply, but also clean environmental protection, high combustion efficiency. In addition, due to the wide distribution of most gas-rich shale areas and the large thickness of rock layers, shale gas has a long exploitation and exploitable life, and makes it possible for shale gas Wells to produce gas at a stable rate for a long time. The obvious advantages of shale gas exploitation have attracted the attention of many countries in the world, among which the United States and Canada are leading the development of shale gas. Shale gas has become one of the important components of the energy structure of the United States, and is widely used in chemical industry, fuel and other fields.

America is rich in shale gas. The U.S. has 862 trillion cubic feet of recoverable shale gas, the second largest in the world after China, and could supply nearly 100 years of U.S. energy needs, according to the U.S. energy reports agency. Since 1982, when the United States began exploratory drilling for shale gas, shale gas production in the United States has maintained a high rate of growth. In particular, since the beginning of the 21st century, significant breakthroughs have been made in the core supporting technologies of shale gas extraction, such as horizontal drilling technology and hydraulic fracturing technology, which have resulted in lower cost of shale gas extraction and relative reduction of environmental pollution. In 2000 America produced just 11 billion cubic metres of shale gas, or 1.6% of America's total gas output. By 2011, shale gas production has reached nearly 180 billion cubic meters, accounting for more than 30% of the total natural gas production in the United States, up from less than 2%. The rapid growth of shale gas production not only greatly increases the demand for natural gas in the United States, but also makes the price of natural gas plummet. As a result, natural gas accounts for an increasing proportion in the energy consumption structure, which directly changes the energy consumption and utilization structure in the United States. In addition, the domestic oil price in the United States is still high, while the production of a large amount of shale gas makes the price of natural gas too low, impedes the incentive of enterprises to extract shale gas, and slows down the production of shale gas. In addition, shale oil can be extracted through the same horizontal drilling technology and hydraulic fracturing technology as shale gas, and the market price is higher and the profit margin is larger. More and more producers turn to exploit shale oil, which promotes the production of shale oil and achieves the continuous growth of American oil production and improves the energy self-sufficiency level. Again, because of the shale gas and shale oil large-scale commercial development to reduce the cost of energy and basic raw material for industrial production, the manufacturing product price competition advantage prominent, which not only implements the U.S. government "industrialization" of economic development goals, and to promote the export trade, stimulate the economic recovery in the United States, easing since the financial crisis has sustained American society of social contradictions.

The success of the us shale gas revolution has had a profound impact on the international energy pattern, which is mainly reflected in the westward migration of oil and gas center and the change of energy supply and marketing pattern. Because of the western hemisphere countries such as America, Canada, venezuela and Brazil adopted new technology of shale gas discovered a huge amount of unconventional oil and gas resources, combined with the mining technology and experience matures for shale gas large-scale commercial exploitation and utilization have created favorable conditions, making the western hemisphere is likely to replace to become the world's oil and gas center in the Middle East. America's recoverable shale gas reserves are 24 trillion cubic meters, with a calorific value equivalent to tens of billions of tons of oil equivalent. Canada's shale oil and gas reserves add up to 2.4 trillion barrels. Venezuela and other South American countries also have nearly 2 trillion barrels of shale oil and gas resources. In contrast, the Middle East and North Africa, known as the "world oil depot", has less than 1.2 trillion barrels of conventional oil and gas resources. It can be seen that the total unconventional oil and gas resources in the western hemisphere greatly exceed those in the Middle East and North Africa. Rich oil and gas reserves, coupled with advanced technology and mature development experience, make the western hemisphere has a unique advantage in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources. Therefore, it is not impossible to transfer the world oil and gas center from the Middle East and North Africa to the western hemisphere in the future. In addition, in the world's energy consumption structure, the conventional oil and gas resources dominant for a long time, the world's energy supply and marketing structure has the characteristics of typical level: to Opec producers and emerging as the core, such as oil and gas producer Russia seller's market and to the organization for economic cooperation and development countries and emerging market countries as the core of a buyer's market. Since the oil crisis broke out in the 1970s, oil and gas pricing power is firmly in the hands of the seller, and the buyer can only passively accept the monopoly oil and gas sales price set by the seller. Now, with the continuous exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas resources, countries with large shale oil and gas reserves in the buyer's market will have different degrees of energy self-sufficiency, and the global energy supply tension will be effectively alleviated. It also foreshadowing that the seller of oil and gas resources will be less dominant in the world oil and gas market. As a result, the world energy market will be diversified and the international oil and gas price fluctuations will be rational and stable, which will play a positive role in maintaining the stability of the international energy market and the world economy.

Since the end of World War II, the United States has dominated the world with its powerful military machine. However, the advanced weapons and equipment and the tenacity of its combat capability are only the appearance of its strong military force. The strength of the us military force is actually supported by the most powerful economic strength in the world that the us occupied the leading position in the global economy after the war. Military strength and economic development are inseparable from the use of energy, military strength, economic strength and energy security together constitute the foundation of the hegemony system of the United States. In addition, according to the analysis of the composition of American energy supply, the long-term high dependence of American energy supply on external oil and gas resources determines the vulnerability, instability and passivity of American energy security to some extent. Therefore, to ensure energy security and maintain its superpower status through energy has become an important concern of the United States in its hegemonic strategy. To this end, the United States has spared no effort to penetrate, compete for and control nearly all energy hotspots in the world, especially in the Middle East. The United States has propped up Saudi Arabia's royal regime, maintained a heavy military presence in the gulf, and waged several oil wars to win control of the region. To some extent, the huge price paid by the United States to maintain its energy security in the Middle East has resulted in the relative weakness of its national strength. Now the success of the shale gas revolution has led to the continuous reduction of the demand for external energy in the United States and the obvious improvement of energy self-sufficiency. The United States is on track to achieve its coveted "energy independence" by moving away from its heavy dependence on oil and gas resources in the Middle East. The change of energy strategy also affects America's strategy of maintaining hegemony. The United States' energy independence has allowed it to deal with the Middle East without being tied to oil suppliers and with greater flexibility in policy choices. In addition, because the United States no longer is highly dependent on Middle East oil supplies, but the "Arab spring" of the Middle East and north Africa countries frequent riots, the deteriorating security situation is of great importance to the United States to provide security protection, and help them to maintain domestic political stability and regional order, America's influence for these countries will improve greatly. The United States will continue to play the role of regional protector, achieving its policy objectives at a lower cost or cost while enhancing its international standing and reputation. Third, America has more leeway over Iran's nuclear programme, though closing the strait of hormuz, which Iran controls and chokes the gulf's oil pipeline, would be hugely disruptive. However, the shale gas revolution made the external energy sources of the United States mainly concentrated in the western hemisphere, and the blockade of the strait of hormuz did not affect the oil and gas supply of other regions. Therefore, the United States was able to avoid the crisis of energy supply suspension, which provided the possibility for the United States to take the most severe measures to crack down and sanction Iran. This makes Iran face the pressure of the United States, policy space is relatively compressed, strategic options are more limited; this will help the United States more leisurely use of influence in dealing with the Iranian nuclear issue. The United States has consolidated and enhanced its influence in the region while its demand for oil from major energy producing areas has declined. As a result, its policy options have been relatively expanded. As a result, the United States will influence the supply and price of world energy to a greater extent, thus increasing its power in the world economy. The expansion of the relative advantage of the United States in solving the Iranian issue further consolidated its discourse and authority in the field of international politics. Therefore, the shale gas revolution has effectively improved the geostrategic environment of the United States, curbed the decline of its power to a certain extent, and consolidated and extended the position of global hegemony.

The westward migration of the world oil and gas center has a strong impact on the status of "world oil depot" in the Middle East. After gradually losing the American market, the market share of the Middle East in the European region will be greatly reduced due to the fact that the U.S. may enter the European market after meeting the self-sufficiency of natural gas resources. In addition, because China, India and other energy demand for larger emerging market countries have also proved the shale oil and gas reserves is very rich, with the mature of exploitation technology and experience, the production of oil and gas resources will be available in these countries gradually increased, thus reducing the demand for oil and gas resources in the Middle East, these will greatly weaken the Middle East in international energy pattern and the status of world geopolitical landscape. The reduction of the strategic position of Middle East energy will make western countries, especially the United States, pay less attention to and participate in Middle East affairs. This was evident in the war in Libya in 2011. In the war, the United States uncharacteristically stayed behind the scenes and gave up the opportunity of expression to Britain, France and other European countries. Instead of sending troops directly to the ongoing crisis in Syria and the conflict in yemen, the United States is offering military training, material assistance and intelligence-sharing to help Allies quell the turmoil and avoid a full-scale American intervention. The United States has become much freer in its dealings with Iran over its nuclear program and recently reached a historic comprehensive agreement with Tehran. Against the backdrop of the "Arab spring" sweeping across the Middle East, which caused many rounds of riots and conflicts, and the urgent need for the us to intervene to stabilize the security situation, the us kept shrinking its forces and avoided excessive involvement in the Middle East quagmire. It can be seen that the influence in the Middle East, which lacks the attention of the United States and other western powers, has been greatly weakened.

The shift of the world's oil and gas center to the west, the western hemisphere's control of oil supply and pricing power will put great pressure on the Middle East, and the shale gas revolution may trigger a new round of social changes. The dominance of the dollar as the international currency was reinforced by the fact that America's energy security was no longer under its control. The strength of the dollar will continue to weigh on commodity prices, particularly oil and gas prices. As most oil-producing countries in the Middle East have a single economic structure, weak economic foundation, high dependence on oil trade for economic development and fiscal revenue, their economic development is quite sensitive and fragile. When oil and gas supply competition in the western hemisphere and the pressure on oil and gas prices by the dollar index, its economic development is bound to be affected. The setback of economic development will arouse the dissatisfaction of the domestic masses and give the opposition reasons and excuses to overthrow the regime, thus intensifying the contradictions in the domestic society. With the "Arab spring" still lingering and countries like Syria and yemen still in chaos and turmoil, the Middle East countries will face huge political pressure for a long time. Under the pressure of the Middle East is difficult to effectively play regional influence, its geopolitical status has become an indisputable fact.

The U.S. shale gas revolution leverages the global geopolitical plate and profoundly affects the international energy pattern, making the U.S. consolidate its global hegemony and weakening the position of the Middle East in the global geopolitical pattern. Despite the multiple limitations of the "shale gas revolution" at the present stage, the development and utilization levels of different countries vary greatly, and the prospect is not very clear. Its impact on the global energy supply pattern needs to be carefully assessed. But the impact of the shale revolution on the world's energy, economic and political landscape remains significant.

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