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Basic education curriculum policy in the UK

2019-02-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- Basic education curriculum policy in the UK,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的基础教育课程政策。基础教育是教育系统中的关键,而课程则是学校工作的核心所在。自从《初等教育法》颁布之后,英国对基础教育课程放任自由到统一制定国家课程。之后,英国推行国家课程,对基础教育阶段的课程政策又做了若干调整和修正。总的来说,英国基础教育的课程政策发展过程是一个既保留传统又不乏变革的过程。

Basic education curriculum,英国基础教育课程,assignment代写,paper代写,北美作业代写

The development of basic education curriculum policy in the UK over the past 100 years is a process of gradual reform. The education reform act of 1988 was a watershed, marking a major adjustment of British curriculum policy from loose management to centralized management. After that, the British curriculum policy is in constant adjustment.

Before the establishment of the modern national education system in 1870, the education in Britain was mainly organized by the church and relevant organizations of the church, and its courses mainly involved religious education. After the promulgation of the primary education law in 1870, basic education was mainly undertaken by local education authorities, and the courses were relatively simple, mainly involving basic skills such as reading, writing and calculation. In 1904, the British government issued the school regulations for secondary schools, which stipulated the curriculum of secondary schools, including English, foreign languages, history, geography, mathematics, natural sciences, painting and singing, manual labor, sports and housekeeping, etc. However, such provisions are only advisory and not mandatory. The curriculum setting and implementation vary greatly from school to school. The state has little influence on the curriculum, and the curriculum management is loose. The right to set the curriculum and determine the teaching content falls on the school and teachers, who have absolute autonomy over the curriculum. The education act of 1944 organically linked primary and secondary education in the basic education stage and formulated the mechanism of continuing education, but still stressed that "the county and county borough council are the local education authorities responsible for public education". The setting, scope, subjects, objectives, number of class hours and content of basic education courses are not reflected in the education law of 1944. Therefore, curriculum management is still the business of local education authorities. Based on the national tradition of pursuing liberalism and the laissez-faire education management tradition, the local education authorities also adopt a laissez-faire attitude towards the curriculum, and the power and responsibility of curriculum management and implementation still fall to the schools and teachers in the end.

From the World War II to the 1970s, teachers still had the right to determine the curriculum of basic education. Holmes, a famous comparative educationist, once commented: "from 1945 to 1975, the central government, politicians, officials and local governments did not insist on what subjects should be taught or what each subject should contain. The decision is left to the teacher. The oil shock of 1973 made the British economy face serious difficulties and showed signs of recession. People began to reflect on the quality of education, believing that diversified courses made people unable to adapt to the application of new technologies in production. People began to question and make Suggestions on the curriculum policy of basic education, which triggered a nationwide education discussion from the prime minister to the common people in 1976. After world war ii, experts and scholars began to put forward the idea of a common curriculum. In 1961, Raymond Williams discussed the Common Curriculum in light of the growing trend of education in the United Kingdom. Between 1969 and 1983, Dennis Lawton developed this theory and came up with the design principles for the common curriculum. In 1976, the department of education and science of the United Kingdom issued a Yellow Book titled "school education in England: problems and initiatives", which stated that the Curriculum of basic knowledge and skills was unsatisfactory and suggested the establishment of a national Core Curriculum. In 1977, the ministry of education and science published the "education in schools: consultation document", which pointed out that the policy of curriculum autonomy was criticized, and therefore a unified "core curriculum" should be established nationwide. The 1980 school framework: consultation document stated that English and mathematics should be compulsory subjects for all students aged 5 to 16. Subsequently, the royal college of inspectors published a redbook entitled curriculum for ages 11 to 16, which recommended that secondary schools set up a common curriculum covering eight basic areas. In 1985, the ministry of education and science published a white paper on making schools better, saying it would promote the unification of curriculum objectives and content across the country. The government, scholars and the general public began to realize the problems in the Curriculum policy, and more and more people called for the reform of the basic education Curriculum, which eventually promoted the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1988.

In 1987, the conservative government published the national curriculum for ages 5 to 16: consultation document, stressing that the work of national curriculum should be accelerated. In July 1988, the education reform act of 1988 was passed in parliament, and the basic education in Britain entered the era of national curriculum. National curriculum consists of the Subjects, Attainment Targets, designed of Study and the National Assessment of four parts. The basic education stage is divided into four key stages. In the early 1990s, the education act of 1993 appropriately reduced uniform requirements in terms of curriculum uniformity and increased diversity and flexibility in curriculum choice. In 1999, the UK issued the new national standard, which added two basic subjects of information technology and civic education, and reduced the centralized curriculum management system, so that schools could regain some control over the curriculum. These include reducing the age of implementation of the national curriculum from 5 to 16 years to 5 to 14 years; After the age of 14, the curriculum is mainly arranged by the school according to the national curriculum; Music, fine arts schools can not open; History and geography can be chosen by students; Reduce the teaching time of natural science from 25% to 20%.

Although Britain was the first country in the world to carry out industrialization and step into modernization, its modern education system was far behind other western countries, such as Germany and France. From church control curriculum to teacher autonomy, from comprehensive curriculum policy to the implementation of national unified curriculum, the British basic education curriculum has experienced a long period of development to form the current pattern; At the same time, today's curriculum policy is also in constant change, revision, reform and change. The main factors influencing the curriculum policy of British basic education are as follows.

Britain is a country that celebrates tradition but loves change. This is not the frenchness of the storm, nor the Germany of reason and enthusiasm, but a gradual, conservative change. This change is most obvious in politics, such as the formation of a constitutional monarchy. Scholars qian chengdan and Chen xiaolu believe that Britain takes a path of coordination and integration between tradition and change. The formation and reform of basic education curriculum policy in Britain are deeply influenced by this progressive cultural tradition. First, the performance of the traditional education is not abandoned. Britain has long advocated freedom and democracy, and education is the business of local authorities. The state has long adopted a laissez-faire attitude towards school curriculum, and teachers enjoy a high degree of "curriculum autonomy". The result of implementing the autonomy of curriculum teachers is that there are great differences in the curriculum between schools, and the curriculum shows the trend of diversification and diversification. In 1988, although the national curriculum strengthened the state's power of curriculum management, it also left schools and teachers with certain "autonomous" space. The national curriculum does not make clear provisions on vocational education, health education and social education. Moreover, the class hour length, the section number also by the school discretion decision. Secondly, the performance of curriculum reform has experienced a long period. Shortly after the war, lawton, a famous curriculum expert in Britain, put forward the idea and ideal from core curriculum to common curriculum and national curriculum. However, it was not until the promulgation of education reform law in 1988 that the ideal of "national curriculum" was realized, which has gone through a quite long period. During this period, there was a national discussion on education reform. Many educational reform documents have been issued, such as curriculum for 11-16 years old, school curriculum framework, views on curriculum, school curriculum, curriculum for 5-16 years old and educational reform plan. At the same time, relevant organizations were also established: "school curriculum development committee" and "secondary examination committee". Finally, the performance in the curriculum reform is not thorough. In 1988, the national curriculum was not the compromise between bureaucracy and professionalism that curriculum experts like lawton had hoped for. Meanwhile, the national curriculum applies only to public schools in the education system, while a large number of high-quality private schools are exempt from the national curriculum.

Economic development is of vital importance to a country and often determines the development direction of other aspects of society. The British economy peaked in the 19th century and then began to decline slowly in the 20th century. In the past 100 years, Britain's economic development policy has experienced the transformation from the liberal economic policy to the Keynesian economic policy, from the Keynesian economic policy to the thatcherite economic policy, from the thatcherite economic policy to the third way economic policy. The need of economic development leads to the change of economic policy, which also affects the development direction of basic education curriculum policy to a certain extent. The liberal economic policy before world war ii advocated "free development" of economy instead of government intervention. At the same time, the curriculum policy of basic education is a kind of free curriculum dominated by the church or the autonomy of teachers, and the national government never interferes with the curriculum policy of schools. After world war ii, Keynesian economic policies advocated the state's leading the economy and planned its development. At this time people began to appear in the curriculum to achieve the "common policy" or "unified curriculum" voice. In the early 1980s, the thatcherite economic policies introduced the market and competition into the economic field, advocating large economy, small government and privatization, which was reflected in the emergence of national unified curriculum in the curriculum policy. On the surface, the emergence of national unified curriculum expanded the state's control over education, but at the same time, it also expanded the choice of parents and the market competition of schools through centralized standards. This is the influence of product-oriented market economy policy on curriculum policy. The education system also advocates "free competition", "market" and "choice", and emphasizes the expansion of parents' rights as consumers and their participation in the control of education quality. In the late 1990s, British economic policies began to take a neither left nor right path -- the third path, emphasizing the coordination between government regulation and market dominance, the coordination between efficiency and fairness, and the coordination between rights and obligations. In terms of curriculum policy, it is reflected in the constant revision of national curriculum standards. In addition to giving consideration to teachers' autonomy, it also advocates the real improvement of students' abilities in all aspects.

In the process of the formation, reform, improvement and development of the basic education curriculum policy in the UK, the cultural and educational tradition, economic policies, political party policies, international educational trends, parents and teachers, etc. have exerted a profound influence on it. These factors are very complex, and there are numerous relations among them. The factors that influence the basic curriculum policy are much more than these. The pragmatic philosophy and various educational thoughts bring changes to the curriculum policy. Generally speaking, the development of basic education curriculum policy in the UK follows two extreme developments, one is "education liberalization", the other is "education equalization". The emphasis on the liberalization and democratization of education is reflected in the diversification and diversification of curriculum and the autonomy of curriculum. The emphasis on the equality of education and equality of education is reflected in the curriculum policy, which is the homogeneity, unity and centralization of curriculum.

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