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American ecological literature

2018-11-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American ecological literature,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国生态文学。在当代美国文学思潮中,生态主义以其在人类和自然关系问题上的独特观察和深刻思考令人世人关注,随之引起全球范围内的生态文学和生态批评运动。美国生态文学的创作和生态思想密切相连,作家们注重凸显生态危机意识,表达自然生态审美体验,构建和谐的生态理想。

American ecological literature,美国生态文学,assignment代写,essay代写,美国作业代写

In the contemporary American literary trend, ecologism attracts people's attention with its unique observation and profound thinking on the relationship between human and nature. Based on the current living situation of people, the American ecological literature takes the ecological concept as the connotation, expresses the ecological crisis in the form of literature, gives the ecological warning, expounds the ecological concept of reverence for nature and ecological integrity, Outlines the ecological ideal, and advocates people to shoulder the ecological responsibility and live in harmony with nature.

Ecological literature is a vigorous literary genre that emerged in the 1960s and is still developing today. It came into being with the rise of ecological ideas. American ecological literature has profound historical background and realistic factors. Although literature has described nature since ancient times, or eulogized the beauty and poetry of nature, or eulogized the process of human conquest and transformation of nature, it is strictly pre-ecological literature, not strictly ecological literature. Because the starting point of ecological literature is to break down anthropocentrism. Although there have been descriptions and descriptions of nature before, they are all viewed from the binary opposition between human and nature. So since the 20th century, with the increasingly serious destruction of the ecological environment, the awareness of ecological crisis has become prominent. As a result of the infinite expansion of human material desire, crazy demands for nature and wanton destruction, nature is overwhelmed, the relationship between human and nature deteriorates, and ecological crisis appears. Therefore, people rethink the anthropocentrism thought in human culture and realize the limitations of this thought. In the field of cultural studies, there are such concepts as ecological ethics and reverence for nature. Based on these concepts, the literary creation has formed ecological literature. Therefore, ecological literature is a kind of literature intervention, ecological writers assume the responsibility of responding to reality. Ecological literature has become a necessary expression in the field of literature for human beings to change their thoughts, establish an ecological view, understand the ecological crisis and prevent the ecological disaster.

The formation of American ecological literature has a historical process. Although the term of ecological literature was officially born with the emergence of ecologism in the 20th century, before that, the ecological thoughts of human beings had a long history. Anaximander in ancient Greece thought the laws of nature irresistible; Pythagoras was opposed to animal abuse, and the cynic school advocated plain nature. Medieval theologian st. Francis tried to make all living things equal. In the Renaissance, cesar pino talked about respecting nature. During the romantic period of the 18th to 19th centuries, returning to nature became an important idea. Wordsworth and Thoreau's works contain ecological ideas of harmonious coexistence with nature. Since the 20th century, ecologism and ecocriticism have been developing vigorously. Schweiz proposed that "reverence for life" would awaken the deaf. Nash called for "natural rights" to attract attention. The founder of ecocriticism is the American scholar grottenfelty, who advocates "ecocriticism" as a kind of literary criticism on the relationship between literature and natural environment and edited the book of ecocriticism. Jonathan bate, a representative of Britain's ecocriticism, points to the ecological crisis in "romantic ecology" and "the song of the earth". Since the 1980s, harvard, Yale, Princeton, brown and other famous universities, as well as ordinary universities in the United States, have offered courses on ecological literature or ecological criticism. Established in 1992 in the United States, the society for literature and the environment advanced the development of ecological criticism. In 2005, in the future of environmental criticism: environmental crisis and literary imagination, the American ecological literature critic Lawrence buir pointed out that the environmental imagination not only refers to the ecological literature's expression of ecological ideals, but also includes the important thought of the prediction and warning of future ecological disasters.

The development of American ecological literature is bounded by Rachel Carson's "the silent forest" in 1962, which can be roughly divided into two stages. Ecological literature before the 1960s refers to ecological literature in a broad sense. That is to say, those traditional literary works that pay attention to nature and have ecological consciousness. The main representative writers are Thoreau, John muir, Mary Austin, Henry baston, ordo Leopold, etc. The ecological literature since the 1960s refers to the narrowly defined ecological literature. That is to say, the writer has a clear position of ecologism, which reveals the ecological crisis, explores the social causes of the crisis, thinks about man and nature from the ecological totality, and advocates ecological responsibility. Representing writers such as Rachel Carson in the United States.

The prose of Henry David Thoreau, a 19th-century American writer, is known as the green bible. He also wrote a series of literary works, such as "a week on the concord and merrimack rivers," "the Maine woods," and "Cape Cod," depicting nature and ecological philosophical thinking. Keenly aware of the destructive power of industrial civilization, Thoreau also came up with the idea of "simple living" and "preserving wilderness," which influenced many readers in the United States and other countries.

The American writer John muir was called "nature's marketer" and "the saint of the American conservation movement". His masterpiece, "our national park," contains simple ecological ideas. American writer Mary Austin's "land without rain" is praised as a "desert classic." She advocated a simple and spiritual life integrated into nature. American author Henry baston's "the house far away" describes his experience of living alone on a beach in the Atlantic ocean for a year. The American writer ordo Leopold's yearbook of the sand town, put forward the concept of land ethics. In the book, the whole earth nature is placed in the perspective of human moral concern. Leopold's land ethic concept stated in the book believes that human beings should not be above all things in nature and should take care of nature.

Since the 1960s, a large number of outstanding eco-writers and eco-literary works have emerged. From the United States to France, Britain and Russia, eco-literature has become a global literary genre. On behalf of the American writer writers have Rachel Carson, John has, Edward Abbey, Annie dillard, terri. T. Williams, sigurd. F. olsen, the poet ecological snyder, etc.

In 1962, American writer Rachel Carson published silent spring, highlighting a strong sense of ecological crisis. The book describes the great threat to the ecological environment and human existence caused by the abuse of chemical pesticides. This book became the foundation of ecological literature. It inspired people's attention to environmental protection, promoted the establishment of the first earth purpose, and set off a wave of ecological literature around the world. American writer John ? burroughs, love of the natural mountains and rivers of birds, their works "wake forest" describes the American in the Hudson valley primeval forest, a wide variety of birds. American writer Edward Abbey devoted his life to the preservation of the desert region in the southwest. He is called "the modern Thoreau". American writer Annie dillard's essay "pilgrim at tinker creek" describes the author's life on the side of tinker creek in the blue mountains of Virginia. Sigurd f. olson's "moaning wilderness" depicts the northern quatico scenery of the United States as a song in the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter. A series of ecological poems by snyder, an American ecological poet, such as "seclusion", "watching the waves" and "turtle island", are integrated with eastern and western ecological concepts. The creation of American ecological literature is closely connected with ecological thoughts. The writers pay attention to highlighting ecological crisis awareness, expressing natural ecological aesthetic experience and constructing harmonious ecological ideal.

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