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assignment代写:American conservatism

2018-06-25 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- American conservatism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的保守主义。以自由主义著称的美国其实也有着保守主义的一面。在某种意义上,保守主义指的是由特定的制度和观点主张构成的、具有明确“内涵”的概念,包括强调私有产权和自由市场权利的经济原则,注重控制与秩序、信仰和权威的社会原则,以及主张有限政府和外部安全的政治原则。保守主义的内涵为社会的稳定提供了制度基础,使社会发展表现出明显的连续性,从而形成了保守主义的风格。

conservatism,美国保守主义,assignment代写,paper代写,美国作业代写

America, known for its liberalism, has a conservative side. American conservatism has the connotation and the style of two kinds of meaning: the different stages of political and economic system and social cultural mechanism has a deep inner consistency and certainty that content and lasting stability of the system foundation of conservatism "meaning"; Each stage of system adjustment and specification change is gradual, fixed form has never been beyond the system foundation set by the bottom line, progressive, continuity of the social development is that conservatism "style". Conservative style achievement by the connotation of conservatism, is the result of the system of rational mature, whose condition is: the system foundation itself carries the modern mode of production, has hold a heresy space and the ability to reinvent themselves, can renew itself, and consistent with the trend of the external environment.

The United States to leave the first impression of the outside world tends to be free, open, make public, lust, is a representative of the individualism, liberalism, and financial speculation, consumerism, gay marriage and gun crime and so on. However, on the other side of the "free" the United States, is a distinct "conservative" face: use rigid constitution of more than two hundred years, the strict enterprise management, strong work ethic, the ubiquitous religious force town, quiet life, and most importantly - that there is no real far-left and far-right, "revolution" and "counter-revolutionary", long-term gradual development of society, the cycle of steady state. Why is America's image so contradictory? How do you understand this "conservative" America? Why can America, which seems to be indulging its appetite, maintain stable and sustainable development? This paper will combine the history of the United States since the 20th century and try to explore this issue.

An important reason for the complexity of the problem is the semantic confusion caused by the unconscious use of the word "conservatism" in two different senses. Refers to, in a sense, conservatism is composed of specific system, policy, view claims that, with a clear definition of the concept of "connotation", specific include: emphasis on private property rights and the rights of free market economy principle, pay attention to the social control and order, faith and authority principle, and argues that the political principles of limited government and external security; In another sense, conservatism refers to the social stability and progressive and continuous development "style" brought by the existence and operation of the above-mentioned systems, policies and ideas. At the level of "connotation", conservatism corresponds to liberalism, both of which constitute the two poles of the American system and ideological source flow. At the level of "style", the contrast between conservatism and radicalism is the basic characteristic of American social development.

There is a close connection between the two USES of American conservatism: the connotation determines the style, and the style sustains the connotation. To explain the cause of conservatism style, we must understand the connotation of conservatism. The implications of American conservatism need to be linked to liberalism. In the United States, "liberalism" and "conservatism" have different meanings than in Europe. European liberalism is associated with the enlightenment, to break out from under the system of absolute monarchy and the church of a collection of a series of thoughts, such as emphasis on private property, laissez-faire, free trade, limited government, civil rights, protestantism, etc; Conservatism is originated from Edmund Burke's criticism on the French revolution, the royalists, Catholic or conservative protestant, holds the idea of es, emphasize the bounded rationality, government authorities, rank order, limited rights, adherence to the traditional, gradual change, property rights is the highest, and the objective, principle of concreteness, particularity and relativity of preference. By this measure, the United States actually has deep "liberal" roots and lacks a typical conservative tradition. Even in Europe, conservatism has the basis of modernity, which is the transition form from tradition to modernity. In the American context, the modernity of conservatism is more and more distinct. So-called "liberal" and "conservatism", is actually the original liberalism is separated from the system of two origin: liberalism is by the end of the 19th century early 20th century progressive origin, to the New Deal officially established by the modified liberalism, stand for going along with the changing situation of native liberalism modification and development, emphasize the government's intervention on economic and social affairs, support open social norms; Conservatism, on the other hand, is based on the "tradition" of primitive liberalism, which emphasizes private property rights, market freedom and corresponding social norms, and strives to resist change and safeguard the foundation.

The connotation of conservatism provides the system foundation for the stable operation of the society, and makes the social development show obvious continuity, thus forming the style of conservatism. And this kind of conservative and steady style has increased the internal expansion space of the system itself and the opportunity of self-maintenance, consolidated the connotation of conservatism.

Throughout the history of the United States, there have been great differences in socio-economic and cultural forms in different periods, but at the bottom of the external differences, there has been strong consistency. This consistency is formed by the concatenation of the connotation of conservatism in different periods and different positions, which runs through the internal foundation of the American system.

The first stage is the origin of conservatism -- the period when the original liberalism was established, beginning with the colonial era of North America and maturing and shaping up in the mid-19th century. The original liberalism consisted of two elements: an economic system based on private property rights and free markets. The early form of private property in colonial times was to provide land as a dividend to settlers of colonial companies, to divide land according to their heads, and to give immigrants the right of free permanent tenant. The proliferation of small workshops and factories in the north, the flourishing of colonial trade, and the increasingly commoditized agricultural economy are all symbols of free market rights. A social and cultural mechanism based on the work ethics of puritanism and traditional social norms. Puritan ethics spirit, teach and support by the profit motive, self-discipline and asceticism, in franklin's autobiography, those in the poor Richard yearbook up a vivid and catchy in aphoristic fully manifests, for instance, "work like you will live to be one hundred, pray as if you were to die tomorrow", "if you want to persuade people, should know the eli, rather than Daniel". Traditional specification contained in a large social network, based on the stable and orderly at the core of the family, neighborhood, coupled with strong neighborliness autonomy of villages and towns and parish, parcel within which individuals acquire the sense of belonging and binding. The economic system laid the foundation for the individual right of free production and management. The sociocultural mechanism establishes authority and order, faith and public morality. The two seemingly contradictory systems are in harmony with each other, building the basic framework and underlying structure of the original liberalism, which is the "foundation" that conservatism will defend in the future.

The second stage was the rise of old conservatism, which began in the late 19th century and culminated in the New Deal and the early post-war period. After the civil war, in the domestic market to expand and spread of the second industrial revolution inspired a wave of mergers and acquisitions, capital of the United States capital economy entered a era of "preemption, development and progress", weakened the premise of equality of opportunity. In addition, the expansion of social mobility and the development of modern science have seriously weakened the authority and binding force of traditional social mechanisms. In the face of the new situation, reformists believe that the old doctrine should be revised to ensure that the natural evolution of society does not deviate from the right track through human intervention, which is a precursor to liberalism. The opposition has embraced the legitimacy of the status quo, resisting change and kicking off conservatism. The balance between conservatism and liberalism shifted sharply to conservatism in the 1920s, and then to liberalism after Roosevelt's New Deal. There are two main branches of old conservatism: one that focuses on social and economic issues, advocates laissez-faire and opposes interventionism. This idea has been widely spread and has been expressed in academic, political and judicial circles. Social Darwinism in American social science popular at that time, the strongest social Darwinism, professor of economics at Yale university political William Graham Sumner of laissez-faire has a very classic corollary: "free, unequal, the survival of the fittest. No freedom, no equality, no survival of the fittest. The former drives society forward and supports the best among them. The latter degenerates society and supports the lowest of them. The old conservatism is represented in politics not only by the republican conservatives represented by President hoover, but also by the democratic conservatives allied with the republican party in congress. The judiciary is the home of conservatives. In 1898 the Supreme Court confirmed that "freedom of contract" principle, the conservatives claim victory "judicial revolution", announced that the national industrial recovery act 1935 and other New Deal legislation unconstitutional, American judicial conservatism climax; The other group is mainly concerned about the transformation of social and cultural traditions and fiercely defends orthodox religions and values. Christian fundamentalist refuses to compromise, evolutionary biology has vowed to protect the United States "the most excellent tradition", a pure school movement, stop the Darwinian evolution into the public school classroom.

At this stage, the protection of the old conservatism fully realized the potential of free capital, promoted the advanced form of monopoly capital, and strengthened the foundation of the system. The old guard, however, was largely instinctive, powerful and awkward. It shows blind fear and stiff resistance to any challenge or change, so that destruction gradually surpasses creativity and leads the system into structural crisis. The self-preservation of the system requires a more flexible and conscious conservatism that has been squeezed.

The third stage is the period of conservative reconstruction and revival, from the end of the second world war to the end of the 1970s. After world war ii, liberalism dominated the national policy system. In the field of economy, increasing government intervention to stimulate the postwar long boom, created a "golden age" in American economic history, but also increases the financial burden, leading to loss of competitiveness. In the social field, the upsurge of liberalism not only promotes the process of equalization, but also causes some social movements to overreact. In this context, the defensive conservatism has adjusted itself from the theoretical and practical aspects, remade the new conservative tradition and waited for the opportunity of revival.

Neoconservatism has also spread in both economic and social spheres. Neoconservatives in the economy, known as laissez-faire conservatives, are concerned with the preservation of "market freedom". Its representative Friedrich Hayek argues that free markets and minimize the government not only can ensure freedom, also can guide the most reasonable results, because "in the case of without the design of the generated order, to greatly exceed people consciously to pursue plans", and the project of comprehensive control could not economically, politically dangerous, "is not only a path to totalitarianism, and it is a path to the destruction of our civilization". Social conservatives, also known as traditionalists, see things from a religious point of view and stress the maintenance of "social norms". They denounced liberalism advocated by pluralism, equality through the head, materialistic expansion, social disorder, faith decline all the resulting, only traditional religious revival and reconstruction of value standard and social authority, can inhibit the excessive expansion of lusts, maintain order and public welfare. In the competition and combination of various schools, neoconservatism gradually spread from academia to education, media, art and other social circles. Since the 1960 s, various action committee of conservatism, foundation, a think-tank, civil society came into being, the more prominent with the American enterprise institute, the hoover institute, center for strategic studies, etc. The return of conservatism from the academic and social spheres to the policy agenda has not been smooth, but it has been advancing. In the 1950s and 1960s congress formed a bipartisan conservative coalition of northern republicans opposed to interventionism and southern Democrats opposed to civil rights legislation. 1964 Barry Morris Goldwater, the republican extreme conservative delegate, was nominated by the republican party to run for President. In the 1970 s, known as the "dark" ten years, the economy slumped, Mired in "stagflation", the government intervention failure and Keynesian faded, neoconservatism has finally won more and more recognition, a dissatisfied with inflation and high taxes white-collar class, in the south "sun belt" the rise of the emerging small and medium-sized business owners, social chaos of 60 s deeply worried middle class parents, as well as right-wing conservative groups such as religious groups composed of most "new" emerging. In 1980, is the representative figure of new conservative Ronald? Reagan was elected President, Renaissance marked the new conservatism.

Extrusion of conservatism was forced to accept some system deduce the new elements, new components, completed the self-renewal and metamorphosis, more flexible and practical attitude, give details and fundamental, from blind adherence to selective guardian, reiterated that the free market and the traditional norms of the old prescription to enliven the internal of the system.

The fourth stage is the return and continuation of neoconservatism after 1980s. When Reagan took office, he immediately embarked on what he called the "Reagan revolution" of neoconservative reform. Reformist selectively mix different new conservatives argue that in order to reduce government intervention, also on the market and society for the principle, to cut taxes, cuts in benefits, lift the government regulation, fostering measures such as small business as the center, combined with the American spirit, restore social order and public religion and other social reforms. Although the Reagan revolution brought a shrinking middle class, social conflicts intensified, rising fiscal deficits, and many other problems, but actually to get rid of the "stagflation" crisis in the United States, has once again become the most competitive economies in the world.

The value of neoconservatism is not mainly reflected in "regression", but more dependent on "continuity". The "Reagan revolution" laid down the policy direction and basic agenda of the government after that in terms of economic system, and indirectly contributed to the transformation of social fashion in the field of social culture. George h.w. bush followed Reagan almost entirely in economic policy. Social policy was less conservative than Reagan's. After the Democrats return to power in 1993, American instead of a conservative force shrinking, instead, socialization and diversification, covers the company internationalist, economic liberals, right-wing populist, national security, military, and Christian nationalists, Christianity theocratic political theorists, and many other groups. The rise of the tea-party movement, which has resisted higher taxes, shows how the right is expanding at the grassroots level.

Since the 1990 s, the end of the cold war has brought the new trend of the world, which is the biggest impact of the economic globalization, i.e. market globalization and competition globalization, the result is that diversity and polarized battleground. Faced with the challenges of many emerging economies, the us can only respond by strengthening internal competition and enhancing its own capabilities. The significance of new conservatism reform, is to see and respond to the request, the development ideas from equality, orientation, weakening competition, pay attention to coordinate back to efficiency orientation, to stimulate competition and stimulate the expansion. Marketization, as a specific policy proposition, is a pole in the dual system of government-market and serves as a tool for system fine-tuning. As a general direction, it has entered the policy base of both parties, marking the foundation and core of the system.

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