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Assignment代写:The implicit psychology

2017-11-09 来源: 51due教员组 类别: 更多范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的assignment代写范文- The implicit psychology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了内隐心理。心理理论是指对自己和他人心理状态的认识,以及对相应行为做出因果性解释和预测的能力。良好的社会交往需要内隐和外显心理理论的共同作用,当某一个系统出现障碍时,便会损害个体的社会互动。

implicit psychology,内隐心理,assignment代写,paper代写,留学生作业代写

Psychological theory refers to the understanding of oneself and other people's mental state, as well as the ability to make causal explanations and predictions of corresponding behaviors. Apperly&butterfill believes that psychological theory has two systems: an early-developing, automatic implicit system and a late-developing external-explicit system that requires conscious control. Since the theory was put forward, there have been a lot of researches on the theory of implicit psychology. This paper summarizes the research progress on the theory of implicit psychology for infants, adults and special individuals, and puts forward some prospects for future research directions.

Psychological theory refers to the understanding of oneself and other people's mental state, as well as the ability to make causal explanations and predictions of corresponding behaviors. Psychological theory it is very important in social intercourse and communication. This ability enables us to infer the intentions of others, to interpret and predict the behavior of others, thus contributing to effective communication and meaningful social interaction.

Since Premack and Woodruff first put forward the concept of "psychological theory", scholars have been unable to define people's psychological theory ability because of the different research results of psychological theory. The "Double system theory" proposed by Apperly&butterfill well explains the difference of experimental results. The theory of dual systems is that the theory of mind includes an early, automatic, fast and effective implicit system and a late-developing, need-conscious control, and a slow and flexible system of external manifestation. Since the theory of double systems was put forward, the research on implicit psychological theory has gradually become a trend.

Pemer first created and used the "false belief" research paradigm to examine the developmental level of the 3-9-year-old child's psychological theory. This study opens up the research on the theory of human psychology, especially the theory of children's psychology, which has a milestone significance in the field of psychological theory. Since then, the research on the theory of children's psychology has appeared, and the paradigm of false belief has expanded, which has occurred, such as the task of accidental transfer, deception of appearance and two-level false belief. Cross-cultural research shows that the development of children's theory of mind is consistent and different, 4-year-old is the key period for the western and eastern children to obtain the theory of psychology, meanwhile, the development of psychological theory is influenced by the factors of language, environment and culture.

However, studies in recent years have shown that babies 13-15 months old already have the ability to understand the wrong beliefs of others, and they can automatically and quickly track the beliefs of others, demonstrating the ability of implicit mental theory. Children are not able to complete false belief tasks, not because they have no psychological capacity, but are constrained by other factors, such as the development of language and executive function, inability to concentrate on tasks, critical information memory errors, or errors in understanding the test. Only by stripping the language and the effect of executive function, can we really test the inherent characteristics of children's psychological theory.

Therefore, the researcher uses the children to see the false belief task's eye movement track, the eye time difference, the gaze preference to embody its psychological theory ability. Onishi and Baillargeon used the expected conflict paradigm to examine the psychological capacity of infants for 15 months through the gaze position of infants. The expected conflict paradigm holds that infants are expected to behave to others, which is expected to come from understanding the mental state of others. If the actual situation is in line with the baby's expectations, the baby's gaze will be shorter and the baby's gaze will be longer when the actual situation does not coincide with the baby's expectations. It turns out that 15-month-old babies predict their behavior according to the hero's belief in the correct or incorrect position of the toy. Indicates that a baby can interpret other people's behavior according to the state of others' psychology. Surian's study shows that 13-month-old babies have been able to speculate on their behavior based on the beliefs of others. Scott added language to the experiment, first allowing children under 3 years of age to watch false belief stories, and then set two conditions, a condition in which the master tried to answer the toy correctly, and another condition to answer the error. In two cases, the time for the children to gaze at the box was measured to measure their psychological theory ability. The results showed that the 2.5-year-old child was able to understand the wrong beliefs of others through this task. Low and other studies have shown that 3-year-olds are able to anticipate their behavior according to the beliefs of others, showing themselves as an enthusiastic processing model. The application of Bayesian computing models by Kiley and others supports the ability of 10-month-old infants to evaluate the psychological state of others. In the process of growing up, the child first shows the theory of implicit psychology, and then, with the development of language ability and executive function, it gradually obtains a complete similar adult psychological theory. The researchers believe that the eye movement trajectory of the language proficiency requirements are very low, so it can be more sensitive to the measurement of children's psychological theory ability.

Research on the Theory of children's psychology shows that before the development and perfection of children's language and executive function, they have shown their preference for the pursuit of others ' beliefs, and the process is automatically manifested in the implicit way, and become the basis of the adult implicit psychological theory, which is expressed in language as the main way later.

In the process of daily competition and cooperation, adults need to use various cognitive abilities to speculate on other people's mental state and predict others ' behavior while dealing with the main tasks. The realistic environment requires that adults can quickly and effectively speculate on the psychological state of others, and can be flexibly adjusted according to the current complex information. This ability needs the simultaneous effect of implicit psychological theory and explicit psychological theory.

Samson used an ingenious experiment to test the performance of adults in the taking of the first-degree visual viewpoint. In the experiment, the participants were asked to judge themselves or the number of dots seen by the character models in the picture. Under half the experimental conditions, the number of dots seen by the model was the same as that of the models; The experimental results show that the "self-centered effect" appears when the model is asked to be judged. When asked to judge their own perspective, there is a "central effect of others", that is, when models see the number of dots and the test is not at the same time, the reaction is more slow, the error rate is higher. Even when a model's perspective is in conflict with a task, this effect can occur. This means that the subjects were quickly judged by the unconscious, and even interfered with the judgment of their own opinions. The study of Wang Yuqing and other people using point taking paradigm shows that the processing of their perspective is much faster than that of others, but it will still be influenced by other people's perspective. Surtees and others use Jpint action paradigms to detect how social backgrounds affect cognitive processes. In the experiment, you were asked to judge the size of a number alone or sitting opposite another person. And in the experiment, never asked to be judged on the other person's point of view. The result shows that when the other person sees the number inconsistent with the number of the test, the reaction of the test is more slow than that of the two people, which indicates that the other's view automatically interferes with the reaction of the test. Schneider and others use Sally―anne tasks to test the adult theory of implicit psychology, the results show that when there is no task requirements, the adult eye movement trajectory will automatically follow other people's beliefs. fMRI studies have shown that the implicit psychological theory of false beliefs significantly activates the left anterior temporal sulcus and the wedge anterior lobe. And Schneider's research shows that even if the experiment requires conflicting beliefs with others, adults will still automatically track the beliefs of others. These studies have shown that adults automatically choose other people's perspectives and perspectives, a process that is not subject to subjective control.

In the early study of psychological theory, the psychological theory ability of autistic children is one of the attention of many researchers. One of the key features of autism spectrum disorder is that it is difficult to understand the mental state of others, and the core symptom is lack of joint attention ability. The 4-year-old normal child can pass the standard test of psychological theory ability, but many autistic children cannot pass. Even a lot of autistic children with normal mental abilities cannot understand the beliefs of others until puberty or even later. Back and other people's research shows that autistic children can not complete the "from the eyes to read psychological" task. But later research showed that the psychological barrier of autistic patients showed new characteristics. Adults with autism and adult Asberg syndrome can understand the psychological state of desire and belief when they are clearly required to interpret the mental state of others. But their eye-movement patterns suggest that they cannot automatically follow the beliefs of others, possibly because of their social difficulties. Their mental theory ability may be established through learning, but the ability of implicit psychological theory is lost.

In one study, Tager-flusberg and Sullivan found that in social awareness tasks, children with Williams syndrome were consistent with the ability of normal children, but in social cognitive tasks, Williams ' children scored worse than normal children. The study shows that psychological theory has two components of social perception and social cognition, and the two components are separated. Samson and other people had taken a stroke patients as a trial to study their psychological theory ability. Studies show that when a person has a strong point of view, she is unable to infer the mental state of others and thus manifests herself as a self-centered person, but when her personal opinion is not strong, she can correctly understand the beliefs and desires of others. It shows that she has the ability of implicit psychological theory, but the ability to demonstrate psychological theory is impaired and is susceptible to external interference.

The psychological theory of different individuals shows a variety of characteristics, and the theory of dual system explains the psychological theory of infants, adults and special groups well. Good social intercourse needs the common function of implicit and explicit psychological theory, and when a certain system becomes an obstacle, it will damage the social interaction of the individual. The research of implicit psychological theory has increased the attention of researchers in this field, but the mechanism and neural basis of implicit psychological theory is still unclear, which needs further improvement.

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