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The Indonesia

2019-07-03 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The Indonesia,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了印度尼西亚。印度尼西亚位于马六甲海峡附近,是世界上人口第四多的国家。由于其经济规模、技术和军事实力,以及良好的发展潜力,已渐渐成为东南亚的领导者。在过去的10年里,印度尼西亚保持了高速的经济发展。它也受到国际政治和社会稳定市场的青睐,被国际社会公认为新兴经济体。不过印尼在基础设施、技术、资本和人才方面的不足仍然是经济增长的瓶颈。印尼必须加快经济结构转型升级,消除贫富差距。

Indonesia,印度尼西亚,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Located in the vicinity of the Straits of Malacca, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. Because of its economic scale, technology and military strength, and good development potential, it has become a leader that cannot be ignored in Southeast Asia. In the past 10 years, Indonesia has maintained a high rate of economic development. It has also been favored by the international market for political and social stability and has been recognized as an emerging economy by the international community. Indonesia's shortcomings in infrastructure, technology, capital, and talent are still the bottlenecks for economic growth. Indonesia must accelerate the transformation and upgrading of its economic structure, eliminate the gap between the rich and the poor.

Indonesia’s nominal exchange rate fell by more than 30% during the three months’ massive sell-offs following the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers in September 2008 (Thee, 2012). The impact of this crisis has brought about direct, short-term shocks, most notably the decline in exports. Indonesia's exports to China reduced by 22.1% in Q4 2018 (Thee, 2012). Export trade has stagnated rapidly. In response to the pressure on the financial market after the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, the Indonesian government implemented the 73.3 trillion-rupiah stimulus measures (Social Protection, 2009). At the same time, Indonesia successfully obtained investment and loans support from the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, Japan, and Australia. The government's stimulus measures for tax cuts and public utilities have also been effective. Therefore, the actual growth rate in 2009 remained at 4%, a remarkable achievement among Asian countries.

In 2016, the proportion of agriculture, forestry, husbandry and fishery was 24.61%. Indonesia is a large agricultural country with a rural population of approximately 42 million. Indonesia has a humid and rainy climate with abundant sunshine and short crop growth cycles. The main agricultural and economic produce include palm oil, rubber, coffee and cocoa (Atlas, 2018). In 2016, industry accounted for 43.77% of GDP in total. The Indonesian mining industry has also created considerable economic benefits (18.73%) for Indonesia's national economic development. It is an important source of foreign exchange earnings. The main mineral products in Indonesia are tin, aluminum, nickel, iron, copper, tin, gold, silver and coal (Atlas, 2018). The growth rate of Indonesia's tourism industry has also accelerated in recent years, accounting for 12.89% in 2016.

Despite the high growth rate, the gap between the rich and the poor in Indonesia is widening. A study by Harvard University pointed out that Indonesia's actual Gini coefficient is above 0.4 (Hoy, 2017). Due to the geological features of Indonesia with thousands of islands, the lack of connectivity and infrastructure significantly hinders balanced development. Employment in agriculture and the informal sectors often does not receive protection from medical care, retirement pensions, and other social welfare. The fact that most laborers do not receive proper social welfare is an important reason for Indonesia's income imbalance. In order to revitalize the non-employed population and increase the labor participation rate, the Indonesian government has been attracting foreign investment and promoting the development of domestic small and micro enterprises in recent years.

In summary, Indonesia's economic growth still faces uncertainties in global economic policies and increased financial market volatility. The most critical contemporary economic issue for Indonesia is the economic structure that relies too much on natural resources and agriculture. This leads to the low employment rate and the widening gap between the rich and the poor. Indonesia must continue to upgrade its economic structure by encouraging foreign investment and supporting small enterprises. Meanwhile, it should also focus on the construction of information communication and Internet infrastructure. This is particularly important because it makes up for the geographical disadvantage of the scattered islands and maximizes the advantage of the large population base.

References

Atlas. (2018). What did Indonesia Export in 2016. Centre for International Development. Retrieved from: http://atlas.cid.harvard.edu/explore/?country=103&partner=undefined&product=undefined&productClass=HS&startYear=undefined&target=Product&year=2016

Hoy, C. (2017). The study that shows life is a lot more unequal than you (probably) think. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/inequality/2017/jun/06/study-shows-life-is-a-lot-more-unequal-than-you-probably-think

Social Protection. (2009). Response to the crisis. Social Protection. Retrieved from: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:zmRxj-lAEp4J:www.social-protection.org/gimi/RessourceDownload.action%3Fressource.ressourceId%3D22540+&cd=1&hl=zh-CN&ct=clnk&gl=tw

Thee K. W. (2012). The Indonesian economy after the global financial crisis. Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Retrieved from: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/acde/ip/pdf/lpem/2012/2012_10_24_-_SEADI_Thee_Kian_Wie.pdf

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