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Development and Underdevelopment

2019-07-03 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Development and Underdevelopment,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了开发和发展。发展实际上发生在社会的各个维度。现代化认为发展是人类创造力的提高。第三世界的贫困是由不发达和缺乏创造力造成的。传统社会的社会价值观不鼓励自我发展。另一方面,依赖理论认为发展是工业化国家用来开发第三世界的一个概念,认为一个社会的发展是由它的社会价值以及外部力量。

This article intends to discuss two different explanations of development and underdevelopment from the perspective of modernization and dependency.

It argues that the propositions of modernization and dependency theory both have their strengths and weakness. Development is a complex concept that is influenced both by the social values of a society as well as outside forces.

Harrison (1985) believes that the idea of development refers to the enhancement in human beings. The essence of the development process lies in the creative capacity of human beings (Harrison, 1985). People can only develop with the capability of imagining, theorizing, conceptualizing and solving problems (Harrison, 1985). The development actually happens in every dimension of the society, such as productive dimension and social dimension (Harrison, 1985). Harrison (1985) argues that a good society should encourage people to realize their creative potential and take advantage of their creativities to achieve a better life. Modernization theory believes that this is the major factor that differentiate industrialized world from the third world. The third countries are traditional societies that remain stagnant and unchanging. The value of traditional societies does not focus on the individual betterment. Individuals only carry out daily works rather than create higher expectation for their life. The main reason for the poverty in the third world is the lack of creativity. The third world is in the condition of underdevelopment and the process of impoverishment. Contrary to traditional societies, capitalist societies encourage self-improvement. The capitalist system features innovation and technological growth, which contributes to the political freedom and wealth in the west world.  

The strength of modernization theory is that it highlights the influences of a society on the creative capacity of individuals. The values and attitudes of a society has a profound influence in the expression of human creative capacity. For example, Harrison compares two examples in Nicaragua to explain that a society can impede human creativity and their development. Larry Pezzulo was a diplomatic entrepreneur who had discovered his talents and creative potential because he received proper education in America. He had a decent job and a high social status (Harrison, 1985). However, Rosa Carball was a domestic servant who was born in Nicaragua. She did not fully develop even though she was intelligent and self-disciplined (Harrison, 1985). These two examples emphasize the importance of the role of the society in human development.

However, modernization theory neglect the fact that not all the people in the industrialized world have the opportunities to fully improve their creativity capacity. Modernization theory argues that capitalism encourages the creative capacity of all the people. Harrison proposes several ways of encouraging human creativity. He thinks that the society should create an environment that encourages equal treatment, experiments and criticism (Harrison, 1985). There should be effective educational system, health system as well as a system that rewards merit and discourages nepotism (Harrison, 1985). However, even the capitalistic societies cannot improve creative capacity of all the people. Capitalism is dominated by a small group of elites who determine most policies and make most decisions. They only make policies that are only beneficial to themselves rather than sharing their power with all the citizens. People are not equally treated in the capitalist society. Some people are faced with prejudice and discrimination because of their gender, race and social status. Therefore, it is not impossible for all the people to have their creative capacity fully discovered, especially for the poor who cannot afford education and healthcare.

Another explanation of development is from the perspective of dependency theory. Black argues that the concept of development was created in the post-Second World War. According to Black, development refers to the idea that backward countries could catch up with industrialized countries. He provides several examples in the less developed countries to illustrate his argument. There are numerous projects implemented in the developing world in the name of development. People in the developing world are convinced that development is in line with progress and better living conditions, whereas underdevelopment is believed to be the reason for their sufferings. However, these projects cause damage to the life of ordinary people, leading to the increasing number of refugees. Dependency theory believes that poor countries is not in an unchanged state. The poor countries are constantly influenced by the rich countries. The poverty in the third world is actually a result of the expansion of the industrial world. The industrialized world creates underdevelopment of poor countries. For instance, West African society was not traditional but under the negative influences of slave trades by British capitalism for centuries. The third world was dominated and exploited by the European countries with the legalization of colonialism. The exploitation of the third world still exists in the international economy in the form of unequal trade policies. The third countries suffer from distorted economic structure and income gap.

The strength of dependency theory is that it explains the connection between the industrialized world and the third world from the perspective of history. Dependency theory believes that the third world has been constantly exploited by the European countries. This leads to the poverty of the third world and the wealth of the European countries. Dependency theory is well supported by various historical facts such as colonialization. However, dependency theory ignores that countries in the third world have the potential to develop independently. There are more and more developing countries that have performed well in economy. They have gained more political power to participate in the international affairs.

In conclusion, this article has discussed the development and underdevelopment from the perspective of modernization and dependency. Modernization believes that development is the improvement of human creative capacity. The poverty of the third world is caused by underdevelopment and the lack of creativity. The social values of traditional societies do not encourage self-development. On the other hand, dependency theory regards development as a concept used to exploit the third world by the industrialized world. It argues that the development of a society is determined by its social values as well as outside forces such as exploitation of other countries. 

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