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Us aircraft carrier development

2019-04-24 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Us aircraft carrier development,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国航母。自从第二次世界大战以来,航空母舰已成为美国武装力量的重要支柱。美军航母舰队不仅数量庞大,一直维持在10艘以上,而且在技术上也遥遥领先。航母已成为美国综合国力和军事实力的重要象征,对于保障美国在海外的安全和经济利益具有至关重要的战略地位。

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As Jane's defence weekly recently reported, with two aircraft carriers due for overhaul and the enterprise due to be retired in 2013, the us navy may only have nine aircraft carriers available for combat deployment before the ford is commissioned, which will greatly limit the navy's combat capability. In fact, even if that happens, the United States has more aircraft carriers than the rest of the world combined, and less capable.

Us concerns also reflect the strategic importance of aircraft carriers. Since its birth, the aircraft carrier has dominated the sea battle field for nearly a hundred years with its high synthesis of military forces and weapons, diversified means of attack and defense, and fast endurance of maneuvering and long voyage. The United States is not only one of the first countries in the world to have aircraft carriers, but also the country with the largest number of aircraft carriers, the most advanced equipment and the most frequent use of aircraft carriers in the world. Former President Bill Clinton famously said during a visit to the uss Theodore Roosevelt that "when Washington knows there is a crisis, the first question everyone asks is: where is the closest aircraft carrier to the crisis site?" Aircraft carriers are not only an important symbol of the strong military strength of the United States, but also a core force in the implementation of the global strategy of the United States.

America's aircraft carriers have been around for a century, ever since November 14th 1910, when Eugene Ely, a navy aviator, took off from the uss Birmingham in a Curtis biplane. In 1922, the uss langley, converted from the Jupiter coal carrier, was the first U.S. aircraft carrier. The ship successfully carried out the first landing test of fighter aircraft in October 1922, and successfully carried out the launch test of shipborne aircraft with compressed air catapult in November. In 1924, the langley was commissioned into the U.S. Atlantic fleet.

In the 1920s and 1930s, the U.S. navy advocated the doctrine of "giant ships and heavy artillery", and believed that the victory or defeat of naval battles was decided by battleships that integrated attack capability and protection capability. Although the aircraft carrier construction has made great progress, the us navy only USES the aircraft carrier as a shield and support force for battleships and only plays an auxiliary role in combat.

The outbreak of World War II upended the American navy's battleship theory of victory. On the one hand, American strategists have studied the successful examples of aircraft carrier operations, including the sinking of the German navy's largest battleship, the bismarck, in the Atlantic ocean by the British aircraft carrier formation, and the experience of the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese aircraft carrier formation, and thus realized that aircraft carriers have become the key force to determine the outcome of naval battles. On the other hand, the battleships of the us Pacific fleet were almost completely destroyed in Pearl Harbor, prompting the us to accelerate the formation of a special task force with aircraft carriers as the core. The United States abandoned the idea of relying on battleship fleet for decisive battle advocated by mahan, proposed a brand new strategy of "aircraft carrier decisive battle to make the sea", and vigorously developed aircraft carriers with its strong economic and technological strength, and built 24 "Essex" class aircraft carriers alone. The us fleet, with aircraft carrier formation or aircraft carrier cluster formation as the main force, gallops across the Pacific battlefield and obtains a series of victories such as the battle of midway island, and promotes the change of naval warfare from plane warfare to three-dimensional warfare.

In 1958, the research and development of nuclear power by the us navy promoted the launch of the enterprise, the world's first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. The application of nuclear power has not only solved the problem of the task force sailing at full speed. Moreover, the nuclear - powered aircraft carrier has gained incomparable advantages over conventional - powered aircraft carrier. Nuclear power changes speed quickly, which is good for taking off. The nuclear power does not need chimneys and smoke emission, which is conducive to aircraft landing. The saved boiler and fuel space can increase the load of aviation fuel from 6,000 tons of general power aircraft carrier to 11,000 tons, and the aviation bomb load can be increased by about 50%. A nuclear-powered aircraft carrier can achieve enduring endurance, strong attack capability and reliable stability, all of which are beyond the reach of a conventional aircraft carrier. Despite the high cost of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, large nuclear aircraft carriers have a higher cost-effectiveness ratio, and their comprehensive strength and tactical and technical capabilities greatly exceed those of conventional powered aircraft carriers.

During this period, the successful underwater missile launch of the nuclear-powered submarine "Washington" led to the belief that the strategic nuclear submarine could replace the aircraft carrier as the nuclear strategic assault force. In particular, the high cost of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers prompted congress to withhold approval for a second nuclear-powered carrier. But during the 1962 Cuban missile crisis, a tight blockade by U.S. aircraft carrier strike groups and the threat of war forced the Soviet union to withdraw all its missiles. This incident proves that the role of aircraft carriers is irreplaceable by strategic nuclear submarines, strategic bombers and other weapons. In the later Vietnam war, the United States used a large number of carrier aircraft to carry out strategic bombing in Hanoi, haiphong and other places, and the aircraft carrier showed more operational flexibility than the air force. Through the test of practice, the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier has gradually become an indispensable and important member of the us military force.

For more than half a century after the war, the us navy built six aircraft carriers. After the end of the cold war, American aircraft carriers entered a period of renewal. 15 at the end of the cold war, the United States navy aircraft carrier, during 1992 ~ 1996, participated in the gulf war "midway island", "raiders", "Saratoga" and "American" aircraft carrier have been retired, "Mr Lester" also compiled in 1993 from the U.S. navy's sequence of disappear, September 30, 1998, 39 years serving "at leicester" class "independent" has been retired. During this period, three new nimitz-class aircraft carriers entered service. Before 2009, the United States had 12 carrier strike groups. By May 12, 2009, after the retirement of the navy's last conventionally powered aircraft carrier, the Kitty hawk, there were 11 aircraft carriers in service.

The United States is building a new generation of ford class nuclear-powered aircraft carriers to ensure its absolute lead in aircraft carrier technology. Compared with the nimitz-class aircraft carrier, the ford class has been improved in three aspects, including improving operational capability, improving living facilities and reducing costs. The ford class incorporates not only the concept of invisibility, but also the possibility of new concept weapons such as electromagnetic railguns and high-energy lasers in the future, as well as more advanced C4ISR systems to fully support the network-centric warfare capabilities of the U.S. military and connect with other U.S. military services and weapon systems.

Since World War II, aircraft carriers have become an important pillar of America's armed forces. The us aircraft carrier fleet is not only large in number, always maintaining more than 10, but also far ahead in technology. Aircraft carriers have become an important symbol of the comprehensive national strength and military strength of the United States and play a vital strategic role in safeguarding the security and economic interests of the United States overseas.

Maintaining a cutting-edge presence is an important part of America's global strategy. Frontier existence is not only based on "being", but also emphasizes "action" -- quick response to crisis and conflict. This requires a high degree of flexibility and mobility of forward deployed armed forces and a low degree of dependence on the mainland or the base, which determines the important position of aircraft carriers in the global strategy of the United States.

Aircraft carriers can not only sail freely on the high seas and have a global range of activities, but also have a "triad" of land, sea and air combat capabilities and comprehensive support capabilities, so they can fully play the role of "forward presence". Especially in the case of the United States overseas land base continues to reduce, the aircraft carrier's long-range combat capability and the role of offshore platform more prominent. Nearly 100 years of experience have shown that aircraft carriers are the most reliable vehicle for the U.S. military to send air strike force to any remote corner of the earth. At present, the us military has one standing aircraft carrier formation in the Pacific, one in the Persian gulf and one in the Mediterranean. Another six aircraft carrier formations are on standby in the us mainland, ready to be deployed overseas.

The us aircraft carrier is the product of the mechanization era, and once undertook the task of mechanized combat platform. However, with the development of information technology, the informatization degree of the us aircraft carrier has been continuously improved, and it has gradually developed into an informatization combat platform at sea.

Taking the new-generation aircraft carrier being manufactured by the United States as an example, it adopts a lot of information technology, such as a new communication command system, radar detection and early warning system, network centric warfare facilities and a series of new information equipment, which fully meets the needs of future information warfare. Advanced C4ISR system will have the aircraft carrier into the network centric warfare system, make the information receiving, processing, send, use an important node, and makes the carrier battle groups with the U.S. and its Allies in the global range of all kinds of detection system, command, weapons and equipment, facilities and combined into an organic whole, capture the objectives through the detection, location, and then carries on the analysis, decided to adopt the most effective method of blow, thus maximum play to the systematic operational effectiveness.

In modern warfare, the key for surface ships to take the initiative in the battlefield is to seize the air superiority. The biggest advantage of an aircraft carrier is to seize control of the air over oceans that cannot be reached by land-based aircraft. Therefore, the U.S. aircraft carrier's primary task is to provide air cover, to protect themselves and the entire fleet from enemy air attacks. Without an aircraft carrier, the fleet would have to fend off enemy air attacks in a passive manner, and its operations would be under the surveillance of enemy high-altitude surveillance aircraft, which would be in great danger.

In order to prevent the enemy's air attack, the us aircraft carrier battle group has established the formidable air defense system. First, the carrier's e-2 early warning aircraft, which patrol in front of the fleet throughout the day, can provide tens of minutes of warning. Second, the carrier's heavy fighters are armed with long-range air-to-air missiles that can intercept a target at a distance of 300km in as little as 25 minutes, starting with the order to take off. Thirdly, the escort ships of the us aircraft carrier fleet also pay attention to the air defense performance, such as the "ticonderoga" class cruiser and the "burke" class destroyer are equipped with the "aegis" air defense system and the "standard -2/3" air defense/anti-missile missile, thus establishing the three-dimensional air defense system.

However, the operational use of aircraft carriers is more reflected in the attack capability. There has long been a saying in the United States: "the United States relies on the navy to fight the world, the navy relies on aircraft carriers. For decades, aircraft carriers have been the centerpiece of U.S. military strikes. Taking the Iraq war in 2003 as an example, the five us aircraft carrier battle groups not only undertook the tasks of naval blockade, interception and force protection, but also dispatched the carrier aircraft for strategic and tactical bombing and air firepower support, and used tomahawk cruise missiles to carry out long-range precision strikes. Therefore, the carrier's deterrent power mainly comes from its strong comprehensive strike capability.

As the U.S. military undertakes more and more non-war military operations, aircraft carriers also play an important role, especially in humanitarian assistance. Equipped with advanced communications and command systems, the aircraft carrier can serve as a temporary command center for humanitarian operations in the event of a sudden natural disaster. It also has complete medical facilities and can undertake medical assistance and other tasks. At the end of 2004, southeast Asia and South Asia were hit by an extremely severe tsunami, which killed more than 200,000 people and caused huge losses, and triggered an unprecedented international rescue. Among them, navy and air force become the main force of American rescue operation. In just 10 days, the us military dispatched 24 warships including the aircraft carrier "Lincoln" to the affected waters to carry out humanitarian assistance operations. Rescue efforts are facing severe difficulties because transportation facilities in the affected areas have been severely damaged. In this case, the aircraft carrier's powerful vertical airlift capability has played a vital role. At that time, the Lincoln's original fixed-wing carrier aircraft were replaced by a large number of helicopters. The helicopters took off from the carrier and searched the coast for survivors and the injured. They were quickly transferred to the carrier for medical treatment. In addition, the aircraft carrier and other rescue ships of food, medicine and other supplies and rescue personnel, also rely on the ship helicopter transport ashore.

The us aircraft carrier, with all kinds of advanced weapons in one, is the most powerful battleship in the world with the most powerful offensive and defensive capabilities. However, it is not without weaknesses. Its weaknesses are very prominent, which are mainly reflected in the following aspects:

The U.S. aircraft carrier battle group generally consists of one aircraft carrier, two cruisers, a destroyer squadron, one or two nuclear-powered attack submarines and one or two logistics ships, and a total of about a dozen large surface ships and submarines. The aircraft carrier itself is huge in size. In addition to other warships and aircraft in the formation, the water and air forces are spread out in the sea and air space of dozens to hundreds of nautical miles in both directions. In addition, all kinds of infrared, electromagnetic, acoustic and other physical fields formed around the aircraft carrier are also very strong, difficult to conceal operations, and easy to be captured and tracked by radar, sonar, satellites and other detectors, thus providing an opportunity for the enemy to carry out attacks.

The operational capability of aircraft carriers is largely affected by natural conditions. Once the wind force reaches level 8 and the waves reach level 6-7, the carrier aircraft will be difficult to take off and the missile hit rate will be reduced. Pilots of carrier-based aircraft can only fly half as much at night, and the ability of aircraft carrier to take off and land has obviously decreased. Key flight-related facilities such as catapults, interceptors and superstructures on the flight deck of an aircraft carrier are vulnerable to damage. Once under fire, the carrier-borne aircraft will become unusable and the aircraft carrier will lose its offensive capability. In addition, the carrier is loaded with a large amount of weapons and ammunition, aviation fuel and ship oil, equivalent to a Marine ammunition depot and refueling depot. In the event of fire or explosion caused by an accident, heavy losses will be caused.

Aircraft carriers are very heavy users of fuel, ammunition and other types of fuel, so they need to be replenished on a regular basis. The fuel consumption of aircraft carriers and carrier-borne aircraft with conventional power is 480 tons and 700 tons per day respectively, and the average fuel consumption of other ships in the formation is also more than 100 tons per day, which requires resupply at sea once every three to five days. U.S. nuclear-powered aircraft carriers can only last 12 days of operations without replenishment, compared with seven days for conventional carriers. What's more, the defense capability of the aircraft carrier is obviously reduced when resupplying at sea. In order to speed up the replenishment process, multiple ships are often arranged in a dense arrangement, sailing side by side at low speed and replenishing at the same time, which creates conditions for the other side to strike.

The carrier itself has poor anti-submarine capability. Although the aircraft carrier is equipped with a powerful anti-submarine aircraft, and the performance of sonar, electromagnetic and infrared detection facilities is very advanced, but due to hydrological conditions, changes in sea conditions and a large number of submarines reduce the noise level and other factors, anti-submarine is not easy. For example, the Russian "kilo" class conventional submarine adopts advanced noise reduction technology, which makes it difficult for the ordinary sonar equipped on the anti-submarine ship to detect it. Especially since the 1990s, with the wide application of high technology in submarines, the threat to aircraft carriers has further increased. Attack nuclear submarines carry a large number of submarine-launched anti-ship missiles and torpedoes. If several submarines approach the aircraft carrier formation from different directions at the same time, one or two of them need to break through the anti-submarine alert circle and reach the attack position, which can cause fatal attacks on the aircraft carrier.

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