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America's health-care system

2019-03-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- America's health-care system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的医疗保险体系。在美国,其医疗保障主要是通过大部分私立医疗保险和小部分政府医疗计划来实现的,旨在为人们应对身体伤害,残疾或意外死亡或其他意外因素致死,或由疾病引起的费用等提供补偿的一种保险。所以,医保体系是由多种非政府私立医疗保险项目、政府对特殊人群医疗照顾和补助项目构成的。政府主要的健康保险计划则包括医疗补助和医疗保险,具体有老年人医疗照顾、低收入人群医疗补助计划、退伍军人医疗照顾、特殊患者医疗照顾等。

medicare and medicaid,美国医疗保险体系,essay代写,作业代写,代写

In the United States, the medical security is mainly realized through most private medical insurance and a small number of government medical plans. It is a kind of insurance that aims to provide compensation for people's response to physical injury, disability or accidental death or other accidental factors, or expenses caused by diseases. Therefore, the medical insurance system is composed of a variety of non-government private medical insurance programs, government's medical care and subsidy programs for special groups. Its private or commercial health insurance industry and government or public health insurance industry serve different populations and provide a wide range of assistance and programs. Private health insurance includes plans for paid services, plans for managing paid services, health maintenance organizations, preferred provider organizations, and service point plans. The government's major health insurance programs include medicaid and medicare, including medicare for the elderly, medicaid for low-income people, medicare for veterans, and medicare for special patients.

The modern American public and private health insurance system began in the early 20th century. The private health insurance industry in the United States, as we know it today, began in 1929 with the baylor hospital providing an advance payment for 1,200 teachers. This plan became known as the blue cross insurance plan. The number and popularity of private health insurance programs grew during world war ii. During world war ii, most wages were frozen as part of the war effort. Private companies, unable to offer higher salaries, are turning to health benefits to attract potential employees. By 1943, the blue cross health insurance program offered 43 services. The tax foundation for our current employer-sponsored health insurance system, employer and general benefit plans, was established in 1913 when the U.S. congress passed the 16th amendment to legalize the individual and corporate income tax. These companies, which don't tax high-paying benefits, are starting to cut the cost of those benefits by deducting taxes from their corporate income taxes. For now, employers are still balancing the health insurance they pay for their employees with the tax exemptions provided by the irs.

At the same time, the federally mandated parametric health benefit program for commercial health insurance is implemented under the comprehensive budget coordination act and other federal laws. Employee health plans, along with many other benefits, evolved from the employee retirement income protection act of 1974, which established minimum standards to provide individuals with the protection of these plans through the most advanced private voluntary industry plans. Employee health benefits programs typically include COBRA benefits such as primary care, hospitalization insurance, mental health assistance, newborn and birth assistance, and cancer assistance for a limited period of time after losing a job. In some cases, federal regulations dictate what kind of benefit plans the company offers to its employees.

The federal and state governments provide health insurance for the elderly, the unemployed and the disabled. The government's health insurance program is a form of social insurance, which refers to any insurance program or government authorization to provide financial assistance to the unemployed, the elderly, or the disabled. Examples of social security programs include social security, disability insurance, survivor insurance, unemployment insurance, and medicare for people 65 and older. In 2005, social security programs accounted for 37 percent of federal spending. There is a significant difference between social insurance programs and welfare programs. For example, participation in social security programmes is usually mandatory or is the result of substantial financial subsidies. Social security is not an intentional form of income redistribution.

According to health economists, modern medicare is in crisis. On the basis of the employment relationship of insurance and government are working to provide cost-effective services to the general public, the characteristics of the type of employment insurance is high administrative cost, cost sharing, unfair fails to cover large segments of the population, easy to cause labor disputes, employers cannot take effective action to make health insurance more cost-effective. The government's health insurance, medicaid and medicare, are experiencing rising rates and costs.

Employment-based insurance peaked in the 1980s. Factors contributing to the decline in employment-insurance coverage over the past two decades include the growth of large multinational corporations, the role of unions, the shift from community-based premiums to actuarial risk-based premiums, and the impact of medicare and medicaid. The government's health-insurance scheme has also run into problems. The government has been trying to rein in the rising costs of medicare and medicaid by tweaking its reimbursement strategy. In the 1980s, medicare and medicaid changed from a retroactive cost-based approach to a forward-looking payment system. The change is designed to give hospitals more incentive to control costs. This design makes the reimbursement to the hospital independent of the actual expense rate incurred. This change has led many doctors and hospitals to refuse to treat patients enrolled in medicare and medicaid. Options for reducing medical assistance and costs include reducing medical services, mandatory employer coverage, service costs, eligibility criteria for re-employment, and reduced compensation for doctors and hospitals.

The problems of health insurance mainly include the rising cost, the insufficient coverage of population in many sectors, interest groups, politicians and voters' calls for health insurance reform. To address these issues, health care reform focuses on the following: health insurance finance reform, non-means tested insurance reform, organization and service delivery, quality control, and cost-benefit trade-off reform. Advocates for a debate on whether health insurance reform should be gradual or comprehensive. The incremental reform strategy mainly includes employer obligations, subsidies, medicare and medicaid, health savings accounts, competition in management, quality incentives, etc., and comprehensive reform measures including individual obligations, individual payment plans, vouchers, etc.

In the final analysis, medicare offers many plans, including employer-sponsored group health insurance, individual health insurance, medicare and medicaid. Despite their high coverage and reach, these programs do not meet the health needs of all Americans. In 2005, nearly one in six Americans had no health insurance. At the moment, employers, especially in the small business sector, are cutting benefits to reduce costs by making workers pay more or by reducing health coverage. Without health insurance, they are increasingly turning to government-run health insurance schemes, such as medicaid and medicare. In 2004, 27.2 percent of Americans enrolled in a government health insurance program. Workers, especially low-wage workers, are enrolled in government health insurance programs for their own health needs. While the U.S. health insurance reform seems necessary and possible, the type and number of reforms still need to be further discussed.

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