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The religious causes of British overseas colonization

2019-03-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The religious causes of British overseas colonization,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国海外殖民的宗教动因。在经历了长期的宗教斗争后,英国完成了宗教改革。而新建立的国教会希望向海外传播以扩大新教的影响。但在国际上,英国遭到了天主教强权西班牙的长期封锁和侵略。为了寻求民族国家的出路,向海外扩张、创建新教殖民地成为重要的战略选择。最终,英国人在美洲和爱尔兰建立了一批宗教殖民地,同时也成功地粉碎了西班牙的侵略和封锁,为建立大英帝国奠定了基础。

British overseas colonization,英国海外殖民的宗教动因,essay代写,作业代写,代写

After a long religious struggle, the reformation was completed in England in the 1660s. On the one hand, the newly established church of England hoped to spread the word abroad to expand the influence of protestantism. On the other hand, in order to realize their religious ideals and avoid religious persecution, they colonized overseas in large Numbers to expand the space for survival and development. Meanwhile, at the international level, Britain was long blocked and invaded by the great Catholic power Spain. In order to seek the way out of the nation-state, it became an important strategic choice to expand overseas and establish protestant colonies. In the end, the British established a group of religious colonies in America and Ireland, which also successfully crushed the Spanish invasion and blockade and laid the foundation for the establishment of the British empire.

In the 1660s, England completed the religious reform, and the protestant Anglican church was established as the church of England. Although the Anglican sect absorbed the ideas of protestantism, it also retained the remnants of Catholicism such as episcopacy and liturgy. At home, as a compromise and compromise product, the church of England was attacked by radical protestants, triggering the Puritan movement; On the other hand, because of the rejection of the Catholic faith and formed an opposition to the die-hard catholics. In order to maintain its own rule, the church of England imposed a high pressure on the puritans and catholics, forcing a large number of puritans and catholics to flee overseas to pursue religious ideals and avoid religious persecution. Internationally, as a newly born protestant country, Britain was blocked, isolated and invaded by the Catholic power led by Spain. Under the severe situation, the British chose to fight against the strategy of expanding overseas and establishing protestant colonies. By the 1630s, the British had established dozens of overseas colonies, large and small, in America, including colonies for puritans, anglicans and catholics. In addition, the British succeeded in controlling Ireland. Of course, the achievement of these achievements depends on many factors, but religion is undoubtedly an important one. This paper attempts to analyze the religious motivation of the British overseas colonization in early modern times.

In 1558, Elizabeth I ascended the throne, and the following year parliament passed the act of supremacy and the act of uniformity of beliefs, which finally established Anglicanism as the church of England. Although Anglican sect is an important branch of protestantism, it retains a large amount of Catholic elements in terms of doctrines and rituals, which is criticized by protestant sect puritanism. Nevertheless, with the establishment of protestantism, including the church of England and puritanism, the British began to spread the protestant faith overseas with the help of colonial expansion.

On the one hand, the English spread the Gospel of god, hoping to civilize other nations with the protestant ideology. In the Elizabethan period, the famous colonial thinker Richard haakluyt expressed in his book colonization to the west: "by colonizing America, the Gospel of god can be expanded and the religious denominations and devout beliefs of Britain can be transplanted. In a letter to the pioneering north American colonizer Humphrey l. In gilbert's charter, queen Elizabeth stated: "to discover, explore, seek, and investigate lands, countries, and territories remote, pagan, and savage, and not occupied by any other Christian sovereign or people." To those places spread the truth of Christ. Before setting foot on the American continent, the important founder of the Virginia colony, John f. Smith told the crew that their first task was to "preach the Gospel of god to the benighted natives, baptize them with Christianity, save them from the devil, and convert them to Christianity." The settlers of new Plymouth, known as the "forefathers of the settlers," also explicitly stated in the mayflower convention that the colonists' purpose was "to advance the Christian faith for the glory of god." During the early development of the Americas, the English were no less enthusiastic about spreading the Gospel of Christ than the iberians, who saw it as a sacred mission to glorify god.

In the 1580s, walter s. Raleigh founded the colony of roanoke island, which was the first British colony in North America. The English established the first permanent colony at jamestown in 1607, and by the 1630s they had established dozens of protestant colonies in North America and the Caribbean, including Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Barbados. In this way, the Gospel of god extended to the new world along with the colonial tentacles, thus greatly expanding the influence of protestantism and affecting the indigenous indians. From the 1560s on, the protestant colonization of Britain gradually came to a climax. Under the banner of religious reform, they regarded Ireland as the Laboratory of the colonial cause. In 1585, the British government made plans to rebuild an England in the northern Irish region of munster. In the early Stuart period, Thomas Wentworth, a representative of the British colonization and religious reform in Ireland and a former governor general of Ireland, believed that the large-scale colonization of Ireland was the best way to civilize the Irish and accept the true Gospel of god.

On the other hand, the puritans wanted to establish a Christian kingdom in the new world that embodied Puritan ideals. The puritans stood for justification by faith and looked upon the bible as the sole basis for belief. But Anglican compromise left room for Catholic faith. Disappointed by the large Catholic remnant that remained in the church of England, the puritans went abroad to pursue their religious ideals despite the church's dominance. In fact, the puritans the efforts of the north American colonial ideal pursuit, partly inspired by the humanist scholar Thomas Moore Moore in "utopia" in inventing a highly idealized environment: the society of the legal protection of personal freedom of worship, no one may use violent means to force others to believe in their religion, because they believe in the principle of "one of the oldest is anyone should not be persecuted by faith".

Perhaps it was the religious tolerance and belief patterns of the utopian society that inspired the English puritans to establish a Puritan kingdom in the new world. Specifically, the Massachusetts colony was the most important Puritan kingdom in North America. In the early 17th century, in the face of the oppressive policies of the church of England, the puritans' hopes of realizing their religious ideals at home were shattered, and Puritan leaders had to rely on the establishment of a north American Bible Commonwealth "far away from church and state control". In 1630, the Puritan leader John f. Under Winthrop, the Massachusetts company and more than a thousand settlers moved to North America. Before landing in America, Winthrop gave a speech encouraging people to work together, to care for and help each other through the bonds of Christ's love, to form an appropriate form of government, and to establish a City upon the Hill to live up to the grace and favor of god. In organizational form, the Massachusetts colony society embodied Puritan ideals. The church played an important role in the colonial management system. The power of each church was controlled by priests, teachers, elders and deacons. The priest is responsible for guiding the congregation; The teacher is responsible for preaching; Elders are responsible for the implementation of church regulations, appointment and removal of church personnel, presiding over church meetings, etc.; Deacons are responsible for the secular life of the church. In this Puritan country, the church of England's insistence on episcopacy, the book of common prayer, the sharing of holy communion and other systems were all abandoned. On the other hand, the freedom of the colonial people was protected by law. In 1641, The Body of Liberties, drafted by Puritan lawyer Nathaniel Ward, detailed The rights of natural and legal persons in The colonies such as Free men, General Court, Foreigners and Strangers, churches, women, children, and slaves. The establishment of the Massachusetts colony attracted a large number of puritans in Britain, and the colony grew rapidly. By the end of 1630, seven towns had been established in the Massachusetts region. After the establishment of the Massachusetts colony, the relationship between the Puritan church and the government became a sectarian conflict due to the difference of opinions. Massachusetts soon became the "center of the religious storm in the north American colonies". In order to realize their religious ideals, some puritans with their own unique views resolutely left here, and they continued to search for their religious paradise. Roger? Williams and Thomas s. Hooker and others founded Rhode Island and Connecticut successively. Williams attacked the Massachusetts theocratic oligarchy, advocated separation of church and state, and demanded a complete separation of the colonial church from the English church. As a result, he was deported by the colonial authorities and about 60 people volunteered to follow him. Later, Williams and his supporters founded providence plantation in Rhode Island. Thomas? Reverend hooker had been a leader of the Massachusetts theocratic oligarchy, but he was not satisfied with Massachusetts' strict religious approval procedures and the requirement that only elected christians have the right to participate in power. He advocated that all real estate owners who swore to Christianity should have the right to vote. In 1636, he led his followers out of Massachusetts and helped found the colony of Connecticut. In 1639, the colony of Connecticut passed the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This document reflected the proposition of hooker and others. It highlighted the importance of the right to vote and thus became the basic legal framework of the colony before 1662. Obviously, Williams and hooker's efforts to pursue religious ideals objectively promoted the process of British colonization of North America.

In a comprehensive view of the early British colonial activities in North America, religious ideal is one of the indispensable spiritual forces to promote the British people to bravely explore the colonies. Within the Puritan colonies, puritanism combined with the special geographical environment of North America and gradually took root in the new world. Modern political principles such as autonomy, freedom and the rule of law were also increasingly manifested in the organizational forms of these "Puritan kingdoms", exerting a profound influence on the future development of the whole north American colony. The colonies of Virginia, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut were established one after another. On the one hand, as one of the achievements of early modern europeans in spreading the Gospel of god, protestantism greatly expanded its influence. On the other hand, as the organizational part of Britain's overseas expansion, it laid a preliminary foundation for the rise of the British nation state and the establishment of the British empire.

The religious reform in Britain took a middle way between Roman Catholicism and protestantism, which left a hidden danger of political conflicts caused by religious conflicts in the future. On the one hand, the Catholic power in Britain is not dead, once the domestic political winds change, they will be attached to some political power and wait for the opportunity to restore; Radical puritans, on the other hand, continually attacked the Catholic remnants of the church of England, and Puritan movements rose and fell. In order to maintain its own rule, the church of England constantly coupled with politics and made full use of the power of the royal power to persecute catholics and puritans to strengthen its dominant position.

Religious persecution promoted by the church of England was first manifested in the persecution of catholics. In 1535, the British parliament passed the treason act, which provided for severe punishment for catholics who denied the king's supreme authority. This was the beginning of persecution for catholics. During Henry viii's reign, more than 300 people were executed for treason. After the 1960s, the government imposed large fines on catholics and capital punishment on extremists, and some diehard catholics were forced to go underground or flee the country. After Stuart entered England. Catholics were full of expectations. However, as they still adhered to the anti-catholic laws of the previous dynasty, they were not free from resentment. As a result, activities such as Gunpowder Plot were created, which seriously endangered the rule of the king and even the safety of life. Thus, the stuarts closed the door of mercy to catholics. Under the religious persecution for a long time, the establishment of religious refuge became an important way out for catholics.

After the reformation, the puritans were the main target of religious persecution in England. Under queen Elizabeth, the government tried to establish a national church of England that was eclectic and united, but some radical protestants started the Puritan movement. In the 1580 s, claiming the Separatists Puritan movement out of the church has hit the unity of the church of England, the queen Elizabeth to hit, a large number of secession puritans were forced to take refuge fled the country. After the reign of James I, the high church, considered by the puritans as a countercurrent to Catholicism, strengthened its dominant position in the church and implemented a policy of cruel persecution against the puritans who did not obey the established religion. When Charles came into the world, he spared no effort to strengthen his absolute power in both the church and the secular world. Those puritans who advocated limiting the monarchy and denying the divinity of the monarchy felt intense fear. In 1633, the leader of the high church, William c. When laud became archbishop of Canterbury, he resorted to heinous cruelty, such as cutting his ears and nose, against those who did not obey the church or attacked its policies. In June 1637, archbishop laud, accused of using the pamphlet to smear the government and the archbishop, sent a letter to his lawyer, William c. Spring, a physician and author, John f. Bustwick and theologian Henry m. Burton was sent to star chamber court for trial.

Religious persecution made it impossible for catholics and puritans to get personal and property security at home, so colonization became an important way out for them. Haakluit mentioned above first proposed the idea of America as a religious refuge. In his article "colonization to the west", he made it clear that colonization of the americas could provide a safe and free place for all the religious oppressors in the world. Humphrey? Gilbert was a pioneer in establishing religious sanctuaries in the americas. Although his colonial plans failed one by one, his practical actions "promoted the close connection between America and religious sanctuaries".

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