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American exceptionalism

2019-03-23 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American exceptionalism,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国例外论。美国例外论是美国文化的一个核心理念,它认为美国是个与众不同的国家。之所以会有这种思想,是因为受到宗教因素、政治制度和地理环境的影响,并发展成为美国文化传统不可或缺的一部分。美国例外论对美国的理想主义、单边主义外交政策有重要影响。

exceptionalism,美国例外论,essay代写,作业代写,代写

American exceptionalism is a central tenet of American culture. Influenced by religious factors, political system and geographical environment, it has become an indispensable part of American cultural tradition. American exceptionalism has great influence on American foreign policy of idealism and unilateralism.

"American exceptionalism" is about how americans view themselves, the image and role of the United States in the international community, as well as their ideas and propositions on relations with other countries. Americans believe that the United States is different from other countries, americans are god's voters, the system of the United States is superior, is the model of other countries, the United States has the obligation to save the world, it must to the world to promote its advanced political system, the concept of democracy and freedom.

The puritans, persecuted in Europe, came to North America in the spirit of puritanism. These people saw North America as their Jerusalem, and they came here under god's guidance, and they were god's chosen people. John Winthrop, the Puritan minister who led the pilgrims to Massachusetts in 1630, said, "god's Israel is among us... We will be a city on a hill, and all eyes will be on us. Since there were no countries in North America at that time, there was no common national consciousness. At this time, faith and loyalty to god became the only spiritual bond. This "city on a hill" consciousness has been ingrained in people's minds since before the founding of the United States, and has become the legacy of American thought from generation to generation. After the founding of the United States, the society still has a strong religious color. In the early 20th century Albert j. beveridge, a republican senator, said that "god has chosen the people of America as his chosen people to lead the world toward renewal." Christian culture is a major part of the American cultural tradition. Americans believe that the United States is the only country in the world established according to the will of god.

In colonial times, far from European control, the colonists were accustomed to running their own affairs, enjoying far more freedom than the European people had then. As a result, colonial-era americans called themselves "free people." After the founding of new China, the United States abandoned the aristocracy, monarchy and hierarchy in Europe, avoided the corruption, autocracy and class conflict in Europe, implemented the separation of powers political system based on the principle of people's sovereignty, and established the first republic in the world. Americans see it as the noblest and purest regime in the world, one that upholds the best interests of the individual and achieves true liberty and equality. "All the governments of the old world are so deeply rooted... The conditions under which human politics cannot be reformed in Asia, Africa or Europe... Americans have gained a foothold not only for themselves but for the world. The colonists established a new regime in North America according to the republican principles, which became another important basis for the idea of "American exceptionalism".

The continent of North America is vast and fertile. It is separated from Europe and Asia by the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. This geographical environment has a great impact on the American psychology of exception. The early puritans believed that North America was the place where god had specially left them to conduct holy experiments. North America was their refuge from the sufferings and evils of Europe. George Washington said in his farewell address that America's "separation and remoteness" from Europe allowed it to "take a different course" and that it should not "abandon the advantages of a particular geography". By "a different course," he meant that to ensure security, the United States would not get involved in European affairs, isolate itself from European disputes, and concentrate on developing its own strength. Geography gives americans a sense of security, a sense that living here is guided by god, that the United States is a beacon, a role model for other nations, and an exception to the rule.

American exceptionalism is an important part of American traditional culture and has great influence on the formulation and implementation of American foreign policy.

Exceptionalism adds a highly idealistic dimension to American foreign policy. Unlike traditional European foreign policy, americans see themselves as a noble people with a noble altruistic motive and a mission to help uncivilized nations and nations escape from ignorance and backwardness. As for America's territorial expansion in the 19th century, they saw it not as an invasion but as "taking care of the unfortunate in a kind way" with a selfless purpose. Exceptionalism makes americans think that America is squeamish and benevolent in its international behaviour. For example, in the first world war, the americans claimed to participate in the war to "fight a war to end all wars", and the americans participated in the second world war to free the world from the slavery of fascism and establish a new world order on the basis of the "four freedoms". Americans believe that they are unique among nations in the world, that their motives are good, their actions moral, and their purposes pure. This is clearly reflected in the idealistic diplomatic principles of the United States.

Unilateralism is another important embodiment of American exceptionalism in American foreign policy. Americans believe that compared with other countries, the United States is an exceptional country that cannot be measured by the standards of other countries. What other countries cannot do, the United States can do. It presents itself as the architect of the new international order and the arbiter of international conduct, and sees reason to go beyond the existing international system and international law. It needs to transcend the current international order and establish a new order to promote the progress of the international community. In 1998, then-secretary of state Madeleine albright explained the cruise missile launch into Iraq this way: "if we have to use force, it's because we're the United States. We are an indispensable nation. We stand tall and look far. This is a clear demonstration of American unilateralism. Unilateralism still has many manifestations in American diplomatic history. For example, unilaterally withdrawing from the anti-missile treaty, bypassing the United Nations and starting the Iraq war.

"American exceptionalism" is deeply rooted in the thoughts of americans and has a complex and profound influence on the diplomatic behavior of the United States. By understanding its historical origin and its manifestation in the foreign policy of the United States, we can have a clearer view of the characteristics of the foreign policy of the United States, and know ourselves and the enemy, so as to make countermeasures to our own advantage.

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