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Youth training programmes in the UK

2019-02-28 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Youth training programmes in the UK,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的青年培训计划。英国青年培训计划的实施在一定程度上提高了青年人的技能水平,从而大大提高了他们的就业可能性,但是它没有从根本上解决英国的失业问题。因此,必须加强培训与就业之间的联系。培训不应该仅由需求推动,也应该由经济发展需要推动。

Youth training program,英国青年培训计划,essay代写,作业代写,代写

After the implementation of the youth training program, it can be said that it has improved the education and training of British young people to some extent. In terms of Numbers, by the mid-1980s, the proportion of young people aged between 16 and 18 taking part in education and training was about 65%, which rose to about 70% in the early 1990s. It is estimated that in the early 1970s the proportion was about 40 per cent and in the late 1950s it may have been as low as 25 per cent. So how effective is the youth training program? Below we take an analysis from the skill of the youth that attends training and obtain employment two respects.

From the perspective of vocational qualifications obtained by trainees, the proportion of young people who participated in the youth training program who obtained formal vocational qualifications after completing one year of training was very low in 1983-1987. In 1984/85 school year, about 73% of trainees did not obtain formal vocational qualifications, while in 1985/86 and 1986/87 school years, this figure was 79%. As the youth training programme was extended from one year to two years, the situation began to improve and there was a marked increase in the proportion of people who obtained formal vocational qualifications. In the 1987/88 school year it was 29 per cent, in the 1988/89 school year it was 41 per cent and in the 1989/90 school year it was 43 per cent. It can be said that the youth training program has, to some extent, improved the skills of the young people being trained.

For a variety of reasons, six years after the implementation of the youth training programme, Britain is still lagging behind in the skills training of its workforce. The 1989 world competition report found that the UK remained at the bottom of the 22 oecd countries in terms of training and skilled Labour. By the end of the 1980s, the British workforce was still undereducated, undertrained and underqualified. After 11 years of compulsory education, one third of the graduates have not obtained any valid vocational qualifications, half of the employed population do not have the educational qualifications equivalent to the general certificate of education at the ordinary level, and two-thirds of the workforce do not have appropriate vocational qualifications. Therefore, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the British vocational education and training system underwent new changes. As for the young people, after the youth training program, a series of new training programs have been implemented. The youth training programme was introduced in May 1990 and replaced the youth training programme; In 1991, the "youth credit loan" was launched. In 1994 Britain announced a new modern apprenticeship system, which was formally launched in September 1995. All of these programmes are aimed at young people who have completed full time compulsory education at the age of 16 or 17, but with more flexible training modalities and higher requirements for vocational qualifications, the hope is that this will lead to an improvement in the quantity and quality of young people's skills training. The actual effect of these new training programs remains to be further explored. In a word, as a new method of skills training for young people in Britain, youth training program still has various defects and deficiencies, but it still improves the skills of young people in Britain to some extent. What's more, the implementation of the youth training program has many references for the later British vocational education and training, such as mandatory training, national financial support and national vocational qualification system, which are still retained in various subsequent training programs. It can be said that the later training measures were developed on the basis of criticizing and improving the youth training plan.

No matter what the purpose of the youth training program is, most young people still go to the labor market to find a suitable job after finishing the training program. As can be seen from the table below, the role of youth training programs in promoting the employment of young people is gradually increasing. After training, youth unemployment has dropped significantly and the proportion of young people who find work is rising. In addition, some young people continue their training in a variety of ways after completing their training under the youth training programme, some of them as four-year apprentices, with the first two years of training funded by the youth training programme. Others may have changed their goals and retrained in other industries.

In the early years of the youth training programme, particularly from 1983 to 1986, the human services commission urged employers to recruit as many trainees as possible from the youth training programme, in addition to regular recruitment of secondary school graduates and other young people, an effect that continued into 1986. The economy improved, the Labour market tightened and unemployment fell. Since 1986, the duration of training in the youth training programme has been extended from one year to two years, providing higher levels of training and improving the skills of young people, thus enhancing their employability. Berg surveyed 126 companies in 1989. When asked to what extent youth training programs met their technical needs, 52 percent of business leaders said youth training programs were effective, and about 30 percent of workers were recruited through youth training programs. Data from the 1987 Scottish youth survey on "market conditions for the first cohort of dropouts in 1983-1984" also indicate that youth training programmes have been quite successful in improving the employment prospects of participants. Three years after leaving school, these people were significantly more likely to be employed, up 14 to 19 percent. Although the youth training programme has not closed the gap in the employment possibilities of young people of different ability levels, its effect is significant when compared with the special employment measures of the previous six months. On the whole, in terms of employment prospects, the youth training scheme has a significant promotion effect on the employment of young people aged 16 or 17 who participate in the training.

It can be concluded that vocational education and technical training are very important. Training can make some groups have technical advantages and have a better chance to win in the competition than others. Training is a powerful tool for improving employment opportunities for groups and should therefore be given adequate attention.

Since the oil crisis, as the economic situation worsened, the guarantee of "full employment" could not be maintained any longer, and unemployment once again became one of the major problems in British society. The government took steps to address the problem, and training was seen as a means of combating unemployment, giving the impression that the problem was being solved.

As for the youth training program, on the one hand, the government wants to use it to reduce the number of people registered for unemployment, relieve the pressure of unemployment, and get through the dangerous period of excessive unemployment. On the other hand, it intends to provide "young workers with good training, certain abilities and practical experience for employers". David Young, chairman of the human services commission, made it clear at a meeting held in Birmingham in June 1982 that "the youth training program is not about unemployment, but about the concentration of nearly half a million employed and unemployed Young people into a unified program for high-quality training". It can be seen that the main purpose of implementing youth training programs is to reduce unemployment and provide technical training to young people to improve their skills. Whether there are enough jobs to be resettled after training is not part of the plan. However, the implementation of the youth worker program in conjunction with the youth training program is obviously different. First, the young workers plan encourages enterprises to recruit young people or keep their jobs in the form of state subsidies, that is, to seek as many employment opportunities for young people as possible. This measure can be regarded as a job creation measure. Second, from the youth training plan and the young worker plan recruitment target, the two measures in the recruitment of personnel age is staggered. The trainees of the youth training program are generally 16 years old, 17 years old or slightly older after completing the training, and the workers enrolled in the youth worker program are generally 17 to 18 years old. Later, the youth training program was extended for two years, and the graduation age of young people became 18 years old. As a result, the young worker program was replaced by the new worker program, which usually recruited young workers between 18 and 20 years old. It can be said that the youth training plan and the young workers' plan are two successive measures, which also shows that the youth training plan is mainly responsible for training young people, aiming at improving and enhancing the skills of young people. The post-graduation employment problem is left to other measures, such as the young workers' programme, which gives new significance to the implementation of these two measures. The primary problem in training is the incompatibility between training and work. When the trainees cannot find jobs that can directly or indirectly use the skills they have learned, such training is a bad investment. It can be said that the young workers plan provides some employment security for the young people who have completed the training, and to some extent, it solves the above problems, which is worthy of recognition. Of course, none of the youth worker programs are large in scale and offer limited jobs, which is their weakness.

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the UK does not confuse training with employment, but divides it into two stages to be solved by different measures. Attracting more young people to participate in training can indeed reduce their employment pressure and reduce the unemployment rate, but it cannot fundamentally solve the problem of unemployment. And the table above also shows that after training, there are still a number of people into the ranks of the unemployed, that is to say, skills training may not create new jobs. Since the oil crisis, not just Britain, but all but a few countries in the west have faced serious unemployment. In reality, it is no longer possible to eliminate unemployment in the short term and return to the previous state of "full employment". However, training alone cannot solve the problem of unemployment. There is no inevitable link between training and employment. Training only improves trainees' employability.

If the training and employment are not coordinated, the trainees will have no place to use what they have learned, which will more or less discourage the training institutions and trainees. This requires that, on the one hand, training should take a long-term view and focus on future needs instead of immediate needs. In other words, training should not only be driven by needs, but also by the needs of economic development. On the other hand, we should try our best to provide job opportunities for trainees so that they can apply what they have learned. In other words, a series of employment measures should be adopted to coordinate with them. In a word, the connection between training and employment is not inevitable, but it is close, neither side should be ignored.

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