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Health insurance reform in the United States

2019-02-25 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Health insurance reform in the United States,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的医疗保险改革。美国现行的医疗保险制度是混合型的医疗保障制度,没有全国统一的医疗保险。全部人群由拥有私人医疗保险计划的人群、公共医疗保险计划人群和无保险人群构成。在所有发达国家中,目前只有美国是非全民医疗保险的国家。美国的医疗保险虽然多次改革,却因为复杂的政治因素、利益集团的作用和美国人深澡根植的对政府的怀疑和对市场的崇尚而流产。

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Health-care costs are the fastest-growing part of the government's budget and a drag on the U.S. economy, making them a top priority for the Obama administration's reforms. To provide health insurance for everyone, that is, to achieve universal health care, in the United States has been put forward in 1912, has been nearly a century of history, the successive governments, including the Truman administration, governments in the Nixon administration, ford, carter and Clinton administration had offered to medical insurance system reform of the United States, but all failed.

Health care reform is one of the Obama administration's top domestic priorities. As early as when he was elected, Obama proposed his own health care reform plan. Immediately after his election, he launched an open discussion platform on the White House health care reform website, and launched a bottom-up discussion involving 50 states. The Obama administration's plan to overhaul health care by the end of 2009 is a blow to a task that several administrations have considered impossible.

The current medical insurance system in the United States is a hybrid medical security system without a unified national medical insurance. The total population consists of people with private health insurance plans, people with public health insurance plans and people without insurance.

The private health insurance market is made up of two parts. One part is employer medical insurance, which is provided voluntarily, and 165 million people are covered by it. In 2008, 99% of large companies in the United States provided health insurance for employees and their families, and 62% of small companies provided health insurance for employees and their families. The other part is commercial individual health insurance, which is purchased and obtained by individuals on the market. Currently, there are 17 million people in this group in the United States.

Public health insurance is provided for special groups and is funded by the federal government. It includes seven insurance programs: the federal employee health benefits program, the armed services medical care program, the veterans health program, the native American health program, medicaid, the state children's health insurance program, and the medicare program. The first three programs provide health insurance for federal employees and active-duty military members, veterans and their families. The Indian health program provides health insurance for native Americans and their descendants. Medicaid was established in 1965 to provide health insurance to low-income families, children and the elderly, and people with disabilities. It is financed by the federal and state governments. In 2007, 48 million people were eligible. The state children's health insurance program, created in 1997 to provide health insurance to children from low-income families who do not qualify for medicaid, is state-administered and co-financed by the federal and state governments. In 2007, 70 million children were covered.

In 2007, there were 45.7 million uninsured Americans, or 15.3 percent of the population. More than half of the uninsured under 35 are full-time workers. They don't choose insurance because they feel young and don't need or have trouble paying for it.

Between 2000 and 2007, the share of non-elderly Americans covered by employer-provided health insurance fell from 66% to 61%. In 2007 or 2008, one in three Americans under the age of 65 became uninsured as a result of the financial crisis.

Health care costs in the United States have increased rapidly over the past few decades. Health costs doubled between 1996 and 2006, and are expected to reach 25% of GDP by 2025. Employer-sponsored health care costs have more than doubled in the past nine years, more than six times the cumulative rate of wage growth. In 2008 America's health-care costs were $240 billion, or 16.6% of GDP.

The increase of medical expenses as a proportion of GDP explains from one Angle that the increase of national wealth increases the demand for medical services. In addition, aging populations, technological advances and rising rates of chronic diseases have pushed up health care costs in the United States.

Rising medical costs are an unaffordable burden for individuals, businesses and governments. Over the past four years, the poverty line and those above it have paid 10% of their income for health services, and half of them have said they have trouble paying. Rising health-care costs are also a rising share of the federal and state budgets.

At the same time, the quality of health care in the United States varies widely due to differences in race, religion, and state by state economics. In Washington, dc, the average annual cost per person is $8,295. In Utah, it's $3,972. Moreover, in areas with high uninsured rates, it is difficult for people with insurance to obtain medical services, and it is difficult for doctors to provide patients with satisfactory medical services. Health care reform: an impossible dream?

Of all the developed countries, only the United States has universal health insurance. Over the years, although the United States leads the world in medical efficiency and innovation, the rising medical costs make it increasingly difficult for individuals, enterprises and governments to afford. The percentage of uninsured people in full-time job family expands unceasingly, the medical quality in racial differences increase medical system and so on, to the United States has repeatedly asked the discussion of the health care reform, and reform for many times, but because of the complicated political factors, the role of interest groups, and Americans rooted deep bath for the government's doubts and advocating the abortion of the market.

The repeated calls for universal health care reform by successive governments have been accompanied by a common economic backdrop: a recession, soaring health care prices and a growing federal deficit.

The United States is a country with separation of powers. In the constitutional and institutional environment of decentralization, the unique political culture of the United States has been formed. How decision makers form consensus, basic value judgment, political possibility and organized interest groups will all have an impact on the results. For example, there has been a wide gap between democratic and republican policy positions on health care reform. The Democratic Party tends to expand the government's intervention in social policies, emphasizing individual choice in philosophy. If the market fails, the government can intervene through social policies. Republicans are less inclined to meddle in social policy, the lower end of which is interest group liberalism. Health care policy in the United States is in a dynamic environment cycle, the executive agencies, congressional committees, policy makers and related interest groups are always in a changing alliance, the decision-making process is a process of forming alliances and reaching consensus. Real health reform often ends up with piecemeal, incremental reform of such a decision-making system.

The Obama administration, drawing lessons from the Clinton administration, offered no specifics but principles for health care reform given its complexity, leaving most of the details to congress in hopes of winning political support for the difficult task. The decisions being discussed will become part of Obama's health plan.

As the soaring cost of health care drags down the U.S. economy, the cost of health care has become the fastest-growing part of the government's budget, making it a priority to reduce the cost of health care. Mr Obama did not like the Clinton administration in the medical reform, the emphasis on universal health insurance, but there can be no coverage aside, emphasize to reduce rising health care costs, will surge in the cost of medical care to discuss at the front desk, on the issue, various interest groups, government and medical institutions is easy to reach a consensus, common to find solutions, to lay a good foundation for reform.

The Obama administration has provided a platform for public discussion of the health care reform. The White House health care reform team has organized a bottom-up discussion in China, inviting people from all walks of life to participate. Meanwhile, the results and progress of the discussion will be published on the website in a timely manner to increase the communication and interaction between the public and politicians. Participants included patients, medical personnel, Democrats, republicans, insurance companies, pharmaceutical companies, medical device companies, hospitals and community personnel, showing a trend of diversification and providing a basis for dynamic consensus.

On May 12, 2009, six industry players -- hospitals, doctors, insurers, employers, governments, medical devices and pharmaceutical companies -- agreed to reduce the annual growth rate of medical expenses by 1.5 percent over the next 10 years, a cumulative reduction of $200 billion. The savings would be used to cover the uninsured. Insurers have also promised to end the surcharge on women's coverage. This is a landmark event in the reform, marking the reform willingness and consensus reached by the government and various interest groups.

However, in the context of the financial crisis, the policy positions between political parties cannot be ignored, and interest groups and traditional forces hindering universal health insurance will continue to play a role. Mr Obama's health reform is bound to struggle.

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