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English poor law

2019-02-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- English poor law,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国的《济贫法》。《济贫法》是英国伊丽莎白女王为了将拒绝劳动的大批贫民送进济贫院或羊毛和纺织业工厂而下令颁布的一项法律。《济贫法》的目的是帮助和救济贫困人民的法律,是最早应对贫困问题的措施。它是由政府征济贫税,用以救济贫民,并由慈善机构教会施予从事劳动的贫民,而不愿劳动者则被送进济贫院或投狱。

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The poor law was a law enacted by queen Elizabeth in 1601 to send large Numbers of poor people who refused to work to workhouses or to factories in the wool and textile industries. The "poor law" is a law to help and relieve the poor people, and it is the earliest measure to deal with the problem of poverty. It is levied by the government to relieve the poor, to relieve the poor, and by the charity church to the poor engaged in labor, and do not want to be sent to the workhouse or prison. The implementation of the poor law aims to ease the resistance of a large number of poor people who lost their jobs due to the enclosure movement, force them to accept the capitalist exploitation, and use the state power to force them to transform into modern wage laborers. Therefore, the poor law has been called as the "blood legislation" of the British government since the 14th century, which forced vagrants to beg for various punishments and prohibited the granting of relief to those who could work.

The "poor law" was born in the society with agricultural economy as the main body. Although it is a mandatory appeasement measure, in a sense, its appearance prevents more farmers from wandering and reduces its impact on the society, so as to stabilize the social order and create conditions for the later industrial revolution.

Although the implementation of "poor law" aims to give priority to forced labor and give consideration to relief, so as to reduce the impact of peasant vagrancy on society and maintain the rule of the feudal aristocracy. However, we can't deny that the emergence of the "poor law", to some extent, reflects that the state has taken the initiative to assume the historical responsibility for social members' security. In fact, it also means that the feudal Lord's original right of personal control over the people has been replaced by the state.

The comprehensive code of poor law was enacted and implemented because Elizabeth realized that only the power of law could solve the problem of refugees. The idea and behavior of this early social assistance were determined in the form of law, making relief work become a part of local administrative work, which laid a foundation for the later transformation of western "welfare state" from poverty relief to administrative assistance system.

One of the most important features of the poor law is to save the poor rather than prevent them. With the development of industrial society, social problems become more complex, and the causes of poverty become more diversified and socialized. Therefore, this negative poverty relief system is unlikely to fundamentally and effectively solve social problems. The final withdrawal of the poor law from the historical stage is the end of its historical mission.

It had been thought that the poor law tended to worsen the situation of the working class, and it had been concluded that without it the situation of the poor might have improved more rapidly. For it is an abomination to be forced, either by illness or misfortune, to live a miserable life in a poor-house, where the old, the infirm, the orphaned, etc., are forced to live beyond their means in a sordid, evil workhouse, where there is no comfort to speak of.

Other political economists argue that the poor laws have had a number of bad effects, such as providing an unnatural incentive for marriage, increasing the population, which has squeezed wages and made life more difficult for the poor. Barton has attributed the decline in labor remuneration as the population has increased to the extent that the poor laws provide an unnatural incentive to encourage marriage. In addition, patton said, "to keep wages low enough to support the laborer and his wife, and to provide food for his children through charity." Therefore, in a sense, this kind of charitable relief increases the benefits of the rich, but deprives the poor of the good things in life.

The poor law is based on the theory that poverty is caused by individual laziness and that individuals should try their best to get out of poverty instead of being held responsible by the socio-economic system. Therefore, although the "poor law" carried out a small amount of relief, it was essentially a punitive "corrective technique" implemented by the ruler. Adam Smith was indirectly critical of this. He believed that the state had a duty to protect every member from social injustice and oppression. However, the final effect of the poor law was that to some extent, it not only did not change the situation of the poor, but also worsened the situation of the rich.

With limited funds, local officials did not want to burden too many poor people, so they tried to deport poor people who did not meet the provisions of the residence act or expired, resulting in a chaotic situation of local decentralization. In addition, in the absence of unified supervision and management, the phenomenon of abuse and misappropriation of funds for poverty relief is serious, which finally makes it difficult to carry out poverty relief work.

Due to the large number of refugees and poor people caused by the enclosure movement, the annual expenditure on helping the poor is constantly increasing, resulting in the heavy financial burden of the country and causing widespread dissatisfaction of taxpayers. In addition, the UK government supplemented and enacted the residence act to restrict the activities of the poor, stipulating that the poor could only receive relief in their birthplace, which restricted the flow of a large number of surplus labor, not only causing widespread poverty of agricultural workers, but also hindering the development of capitalist society's production and reproduction.

The first impact of the poor law was the implementation of the spingham land system in parts of England in the second half of the 18th century. Both the "poor law" and the later "spingham land system" boast of "charity" and "kindness". Their respective relief contents and safeguard measures bear traces of the social security system, but there is a huge gap with the modern system. For example, although "spingham land system" adopted a more advanced method than forced labor in "poor law" -- favor, this family allowance law advocated the slogan of "fair income", which reflected the idea of social equality and mutual aid to some extent. However, from the perspective of the historical conditions at that time, it ignored the labor intensity and labor's practice of creating value, which ran counter to social development. Therefore, it was unanimously opposed by the bourgeoisie, which doomed its failure.

In 1834, Britain promulgated the "new poor law", which not only limited the relief allowance for the poor, but also forced the relief objects to participate in labor, set up the poor law office, and implemented the cruel system of hard labor, so as to manage the poor people and the relief fund in general. At the same time, the new poor law severely restricted the freedom and personality of the relief workers. At that time, the poor were divided into three categories, and different methods were adopted for each situation. In addition, the new poor law also stipulates that the relief objects must enter the workhouse to obtain relief, and cancels the political right to vote and the right to stand for election. In essence, the new poor law is a remedial mode of the poor law, which is still premised on sacrificing the interests of the proletariat and the broad masses of workers, so it has met with strong opposition from people.

In general, the poor house designated in the poor law is not only in poor conditions, but also subject to restrictions and insults in freedom and personality. And the level of relief was very low. This is inconsistent with the spirit of "fraternity" and "equality" advocated by British capitalist development and chartist movement.

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