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American interest group system

2019-02-18 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- American interest group system,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的利益集团制度。利益集团是美国共和政体的创始人所说的派系。利益集团制度是在美国政治实践中形成并发展的一种政治活动制度,该制度演进到目前已经成为美国政治制度的基本构成之一。利益集团目前已经与政党、政府共同成为美国政治的三大支柱,成为现实中美国政治运作不可或缺的部分。一旦利益集团的运作出现偏差,那么对整个美国社会或特定群体的利益会造成较大的危害。

interest group system,美国利益集团制度,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Interest groups are what the founders of the American republic called factions. Interest group system is a kind of political activity system formed and developed in American political practice, which has become one of the basic components of American political system. Understanding this system is crucial to a better understanding of the American political system.

Interest groups are what the founders of the American republic called factions. Faction is a term used by the founders of the United States to refer to political parties and specific interest groups or interest groups. What matters to the framers is how to establish a stable and orderly constitutional system that respects the liberties of citizens while preventing the tyranny of the majority or of a dominant interest group. James Madison offers a diagnosis, analysis, and solution in the federalist tenth. "The underlying reason for factions is human nature," he says. Recognizing that Americans live in a labyrinth of interest groups, Madison went on to say that "the most pervasive and enduring root causes of factional existence are diversification and inequality in the distribution of property." Under the protection of the American constitution, especially the first amendment, interest groups can exist and develop fully. Interest groups influence laws and policies by lobbying government officials, evaluating lawmakers, campaigning and influencing campaigns, filing and participating in lawsuits, and creating public pressure.

Interest groups are mainly divided into the following categories: economic interest groups, including industrial and commercial organizations and labor organizations, such as the famous "afl-cio", the American bar association; Ideological or single-issue interest groups, such as those associated with guns, abortion, and prohibition; Public interest interest groups; Foreign policy interest groups; Government interest groups. These different types of interest groups are not mutually exclusive. The diversity of interest groups means that there is competition among open and diversified interest groups, which helps to maintain democratic values and limits the dependence of power on any one group. Interest groups were once attacked as saboteurs of the democratic process and later were widely regarded as the essence of democratic pluralism. Political theorists such as bentley and Truman believed that interest groups were the cornerstone of the political process and the change of political system could be regarded as the result of group pressure. Interest groups were no longer seen as a threat to the democratic process, since it was believed that all individuals were free to organize interest groups, and that when groups with specific views on a political issue arose, groups with opposing views could also be created, thereby striking a balance. It can be seen that interest groups are actually the continuation and development of the classical social contract theory.

Tocqueville said: "the United States is the most convenient country in the world to organize parties and to use this powerful tool for a variety of purposes... From an early age, Americans knew they had to overcome life's difficulties on their own. They cast a distrustful and skeptical eye on the authority of society and only turn to it when they have to. Interest groups are the reflection of multiple interests, individual autonomy and social autonomy. The formation and operation of interest groups are conducive to the combination of legal subjectivity and publicity. "The construction of a harmonious interest order in a law-based society depends on a benign interest integration mechanism and interest regulation mechanism."

Full and open interest group system enables the interests of all social strata to be fed back into the government's behavior, which is conducive to the maximization of social interests. This system satisfies the precondition of promoting the publicity of law. Realize the organization of the main body; It is equal among members of a single interest group. Among multiple interest groups, even groups with conflicts of interest, groups are equal due to coexistence, competition and compromise. The formation of tolerance and compromise mechanism. In terms of the reality of our country, cultivating people's tolerance spirit of compromise, the meaning is: "the weak body has the spirit is more likely to be within the scope of the law and order to allow put forward claims, without destroying everything", can effectively relieve people's hatred of mentality, "if the whole society is set up this kind of spirit, is more likely to be different stakeholders through the way of negotiation, compromise, through the path of peaceful, progressive solve the interests conflict with each other, method of publicity can self-realization".

The interest group system can effectively integrate the resources of vulnerable individuals, and some professionals engaged in political activities can express their interest demands. From the perspective of norms, if various social groups are given ways to express their interests, then these social groups will fully recognize the resulting laws and policies, thus forming the "autonomous legislation" in habermas' theory.

Of course, the system of interest groups has its own defects, and its criticism is not uncommon. For example, "interest groups are divided into 'ingroup' and 'outgroup' groups. 'incircle' groups can consult with the government regularly and play an active role in the formulation and implementation of policies. 'outside groups' are often considered illegal by the government and fight for a place in political affairs. People's attention more and more focused on that give some interest groups' public status and some group excluded 'filtering mechanism, which found that interests are no longer to attract a wide range of different opinions to the democratic process of mechanism, the privileged interests, is the exercise of the relatively far away from the democratic supervision of the public power."

Some interest groups have the tendency to transform into vested interests. For example, habermas holds that the strict restriction of administrative activities by deliberative legislative model and legal guidance is threatened by the bureaucracy that tends to form its own body, and is also threatened by the privilege of private social power to the same extent. But in America, the real problem is thought to be... The influence of interest groups that pursue their private objectives through government agencies at the expense of the general good." Hayek, a libertarian, argued that modern democracy "in the course of this century has also produced a vast and extremely wasteful quasi-governmental apparatus of guilds, trade unions, and professional organizations; To a large extent, all of these institutions are designed to achieve the objective of securing the best possible preferential treatment from the government to the pockets of their respective members. However, it was really only established in response to the tendency of an all-powerful majority government to rely increasingly on buying the support of certain small groups to maintain its majority. In these situations, political factions have in fact degenerated into alliances of organized interest groups whose actions are determined by the internal logic of their respective mechanisms and not by any general principles or ideals to which they subscribe."

Interest groups, together with political parties and governments, have become the three pillars of American politics and an indispensable part of American political operation in reality. If there is deviation in the operation of interest groups, it will do great harm to the interests of the whole American society or specific groups. But unfortunately, this bias has been repeated. The main performance is as follows:

Due to the interests of the majority of the members may not engage in activities in the influence of government, at the same time, group of a few core holds the overwhelming advantage of various social resources, often only a few key players can actually influence on government, the majority of members of the core members of the supervisory mechanism is very fragile, at this point a few key person's behavior to maintain the interest groups on the surface, in essence is to safeguard its own interests.

There are also big differences between different interest groups. For example, in the United States, since the labor union has a huge influence on the hired workers, the workers mean a large number of votes for politicians, so some politicians' legislation and policy draft often consciously favor the domestic hired workers, which is a major blow to immigrants.

In order to pass their own proposals, different political parties seek the support of other political parties, support each other's proposals, or attach favorable contents to their own proposals to make their proposals easier to pass in the parliament, which is a common strategy in western party politics. Just here main body by the party into interest groups, but the laws of the United States for political activities much more regulation than interest group activity regulation strictly, and basic is close between the two parties in the United States, with interests on the other hand, because of some interest groups have no conditions for allied with other interest groups, such as compared to the economic interests, political purposes, interests, public welfare purposes is lack of attract other interest group the advantage of the Allies.

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