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The beveridge report

2018-12-22 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- The beveridge report,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了《贝弗里奇报告》。《贝弗里奇报告》是英国一部关于全方位福利问题的报告。报告设计了一整套的社会福利框架,力图建立完整的社会保险制度,由国家强制实施。不论收入多少,不论风险高低,所有国民都必须参加保险,每人缴费费率相同,待遇标准统一。从操作实践来看,《贝弗里奇报告》拉开了福利国家建设的序幕,对战后的资本主义世界的社会结构重建、政府职能转变影响深远。

beveridge report,贝弗里奇报告,essay代写,作业代写,代写

The beveridge report is a comprehensive welfare report. The report has designed a "cradle-to-grave" social welfare framework in an effort to create a comprehensive social insurance system that will be enforced by the state. No matter income how many, no matter risk discretion, all nationals must attend insurance, everybody pays cost rate is same, pay standard is unified. From the perspective of operation and practice, the beveridge report started the construction of welfare state and had a profound impact on the reconstruction of social structure and the transformation of government functions in the post-war capitalist world.

The basic principles of the beveridge report. "Beveridge report" welfare state thought is the inheritance, innovation and development of the British social security thought. Beveridge believes that only by adhering to the three guiding principles can we fundamentally solve the five major problems of poverty, disease, ignorance, dirt and laziness in post-war social construction and make the aid-oriented social security system work well. First, when planning for the future, we should make full use of the rich experience accumulated in the past and not be restricted by the interests of departments formed in the process of accumulation of such experience. Second, social insurance should be regarded as one of the series of policies to promote social progress. Third, social security requires cooperation between the state and individuals. These three principles break through the limitation of departmental interests on the basis of inheriting the tradition, emphasize the importance of social security as a basic social policy from the perspective of the whole country, and put forward the modern social security thought of combining government responsibility and citizen obligation in the development of social security.

Beveridge proposed a complete social security plan covering social assistance, social insurance and social welfare for all citizens in nine different situations. The comprehensive coverage of the social security plan has transformed the welfare state from people's ideal into a concrete and feasible social action plan. The beveridge report put forward six basic principles for the construction of the social insurance plan of the welfare state. Uniform payment rate; Unity of administrative duties; Appropriate treatment standards; Extensive safeguards; Classification, suitable for different groups. These six principles mainly express the social security policy propositions of the welfare state.

The beveridge report's policy thinking. Although China's current macro environment is quite different from that of the UK 60 years ago, under the background of building a harmonious society, the beveridge report can provide us with some useful ideas on how to eliminate the negative consequences of the unbalanced development strategy adopted after China's reform and opening up.

The fundamental goal of social security system: to maintain basic living needs. That is, to ensure that every citizen will not get into trouble in life under any circumstances. Beveridge has repeatedly stressed the need to "allow the most difficult people to lead normal lives", but there is no guarantee of a "rich life" - the latter dependent on individual efforts and market forces. Social security should be based on ensuring that residents have the means of livelihood they need to maintain their basic livelihood. This is from the basic needs of people, but also from the country's economic capacity.

We should not delay the building of a social security system for all because of economic and financial difficulties. Since the social security system protects the most vulnerable, it is inhumane to use economic difficulties as an excuse to avoid the problem. Moreover, under effective institutional arrangements, this problem is not without solutions.

We will try to expand the coverage of the social insurance system and reduce the scope of social relief. Beveridge makes a strict distinction between social security and social relief. The former is based on the premise of payment, there is no right to enjoy without fulfilling the obligation of payment; The latter has no such constraint. If the latter range is too large, easy to raise lazybones. From the perspective of sustainability, beveridge believes that the scope of social insurance should be expanded while the scope of social relief should be reduced. Social security should benefit all residents and implement comprehensive social security for all.

Fourth, reasonable institutional arrangements are the institutional guarantee for the development of social security. Beveridge believes that the construction of social security system is a systematic project, involving all aspects of society and the interests of various interest groups. Therefore, to promote the construction of this system, the planning of social security system needs an interdepartmental coordination committee to complete.

The beveridge report and the successful experience of the British social security system practice are of great significance to the improvement of China's social security law and the reform and development of the social security system. To accelerate the pace of modernization, China must boldly absorb and draw on all the outstanding achievements of human civilization on the basis of its actual national conditions and cultural traditions. The implications of the beveridge report should be noted in the following areas.

In the development practice of social security system in various countries, the establishment of advanced concepts is superior to the design of the system, and the reasonable system design is superior to the choice of technical schemes, which is a basic logic for the construction of social security system. The beveridge report regards the social insurance system as a basic social policy to provide income security and eliminate poverty in the guiding principles, and emphasizes that social insurance is a comprehensive and extensive guarantee in the basic principles of the social insurance plan. Categorize them to suit different groups of people. All of these can be seen as a summary of beveridge's welfare state thought, namely, to maintain the basic needs of life, comprehensive security. And our country "social insurance law" expatiate in general rule 3: social insurance system insists on the policy of wide coverage, basic protection, mutiple level, sustainable, social insurance level should adapt to the level of economic and social development. The two are highly compatible.

In the construction of social security concept, we need to grasp the relationship between government responsibility and citizen obligation of social security. First, the government must undertake the responsibility of system design and legislation. Although the promulgation of the social security law is of landmark significance to the regulation of social insurance and the guidance of public participation, the law itself still needs to be discussed, revised and improved, and it should be noted that social assistance, social welfare and other social security categories are in urgent need of legal guidance and regulation. Further reform and development on the design and implementation of the social security system still have a long way to go. Second, the government should assume the supervision responsibility of social security. Social security is a complex system engineering. From system construction to practical operation, it needs the coordination, cooperation and operation of multiple departments, fields and links. Therefore, strengthening the supervision of social security is the responsibility of the government. What's more, the government has the responsibility to mobilize the public to jointly undertake social supervision. Third, the government should shoulder the responsibility of financial support for social security. As a public product and social service, social security can only be provided with the government as the leading role. The most fundamental way for the government to shoulder the responsibility of social security is to expand the government's fiscal expenditure in the field of social security. "Beveridge report" qualitative to standard of proper social insurance pay is: pay discretion is moderate, enjoy deadline appropriate. The aim is to provide a basic income sufficient to meet the basic needs of the whole population, even if there are no other sources of income. For our country, we need to further improve the level of security, pay attention to narrow the treatment differences between relevant groups. We will continue to raise the level of basic old-age pension and establish a mechanism for regular adjustment in line with economic development and wage and price increases. We will continue to raise the level of medical insurance coverage, increase the proportion of medical expenses reimbursed, narrow the gap between urban and rural areas, and, on the basis of reducing the burden of hospitalization and major diseases, actively promote overall planning of outpatient expenses. Fourth, in terms of individual responsibility, the beveridge report clearly states in its guiding principles that social security must be jointly undertaken by the state and citizens, and should not be limited by sectoral interests formed in the process of experience accumulation. At present, China has not included civil servants and public employees into the social security system, which obviously makes the social security rights and obligations of this group of people unequal. This is undoubtedly an important problem that urgently needs to be studied and solved.

The beveridge report lays particular emphasis on the unification of basic treatment standards, payment rates and administrative duties in the basic principles for the construction of the social insurance plan of the welfare state. In actual regulation is made, treatment is unified on, do not consider because unemployment, disable or emeritus and the original income that interrupts is how many; Rate is unified on, carry out compulsive insurance, ask every ginseng protects a person and its employer to expend with unified rate capture, and do not consider its economic condition; Management is unified go up, to each ginseng protects a person to say, no matter enjoy how many kinds of treatment, capture expends weekly can only, all capture expends the social insurance fund that enters independence, all sorts of treatment and other insurance defray list are spent from this fund.

And our country is in at present social insurance is basic treatment standard and pay cost standard go up, there is apparent disunity and inequality phenomenon between provincial class, group. In particular, there are large differences in social insurance levels between the central and western regions to the east and between urban and rural areas, which is the most typical contrast with the heavy burden of enterprise payment and the fact that the units where civil servants work rely on financial burden and do not need to pay. In the process of social insurance management, there are some phenomena and problems, such as the main body of social insurance premium collection is not unified, the urban and rural old-age pension system is not unified, the new rural cooperative medical insurance system and the urban residents' medical insurance management system is not unified. These need to be in accordance with the principle of unity, the relevant social insurance system in China is revised and improve policies and measures to regulate the relationship of social insurance, safeguard citizens' participation in social insurance and enjoy social insurance benefits the legitimate rights and interests of promoting and maintaining the formation of a unified national labor market, make citizens sharing achievement, promote social harmony and stability.

At present, China's social security system construction is facing new situations and new problems mainly: the acceleration of industrialization, the formation of social security development momentum and pressure; Urbanization continues to advance, and the urban-rural structure is changing rapidly. The aging of the population is coming rapidly, and the long-term financial balance of social security is under great pressure. Marketization and diversification of employment modes have highlighted the inadaptability of China's social security management system and service capacity. Deepening economic globalization brings multiple challenges to social security. Therefore, according to the practice of the establishment of social security in Britain and China's actual national conditions, China should pay attention to the following points in improving the social security system:

We will speed up efforts to make up for the lack of systems and build a sound social security system that covers both urban and rural residents and complete it. Lack of loopholes and coverage for the whole people is an inherent requirement for the construction and development of the social security system. Therefore, while further reforming the existing institutional arrangements and improving their effectiveness, it is urgent to fill in the gaps in the existing social security system through corresponding institutional arrangements, so that all citizens can obtain different degrees of social security from different institutional arrangements. On this basis, the whole social security system should be improved to become a reliable safety net for all citizens.

We will work as soon as possible to finalize and stabilize the social security system and achieve sustainable development. While trying to optimize the arrangement of social security system, it is necessary to accelerate the pace of legislation of social security system, so as to promote the finalization and stability of social security system. On this basis, to make it adapt to the changes of The Times and the rules of the system itself, and constantly improve, to achieve sustainable development. While striving to realize the sustainable development of social security system, it should also be able to maintain the sustainable development of national economy.

We will effectively improve the fairness of the social security system so that it can truly and fairly cover all citizens. On the basis of a sound social security system, the country needs from narrowing this system between urban and rural areas, between different regions, the gap between the group and the unfairness of, whether with fairness and reduce the unfair for evaluating system and its current development scale, gradually eliminate discrimination and exclusion of institutional arrangements, eventually establish the equality of all citizens welfare rights, realizing fair all citizens are able to enjoy social security development goals.

We will continue to raise the level of social security and eventually move toward a socialist welfare society with Chinese characteristics. With national economic development, social progress and people's all-round development, urban and rural residents for the demand of social security will continue to climb, and by actively and rationally, and constantly improve the level of social security, with strong for national security and continuously improve the quality of the lives of its citizens, necessarily constitute and national development process has always been a major theme. The ultimate goal will be to lead the people towards a socialist welfare society with Chinese characteristics, so that all the people can truly live a quality life of security, happiness, prosperity, freedom, equality, comprehensiveness and dignity.

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