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Urban and citizen class power in early medieval Britain

2018-12-07 来源: 51due教员组 类别: Essay范文

下面为大家整理一篇优秀的essay代写范文- Urban and citizen class power in early medieval Britain,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了英国中古前期城市与市民阶层力量。自诺曼征服以来,英国市民阶层力量伴随着中古城市的发展而缓慢的变化着。亨利二世改革之前,市民阶层力量微弱,在政治活动中始终从属与英王和教俗贵族。威廉一世凭借着强大的军事、政治权威创建了封建中央集权的君主制,其历经其继承者威廉二世、亨利一世时期的不断修补与发展,终于在经过亨利二世改革之后达到前所未有的顶峰。与此同时,城市与市民阶级力量得到了一定程度的发展。

early medieval Britain,英国中古前期城市,essay代写,作业代写,代写

Since the Norman conquest, the power of the English civil class has been slowly changing with the development of medieval cities. Before the reform of Henry ii, the civil class was weak and always subordinate to the British king and the secular aristocracy in political activities. Meng guanglin once pointed out that "in the early medieval Britain's history, the emergence and rise of feudal cities in Britain have always been synchronized with the formation and development of feudal monarchy". William I established the feudal centralized monarchy with strong military and political authority. After the continuous repair and development of William ii, his successor, and Henry I, William I finally reached an unprecedented peak after the reform of Henry ii. At the same time, the strength of city and citizen class has been developed to a certain extent.

Iberian and Celtic Britain did not yet have towns in the true sense, but towns in the true sense of Britain appeared in the Roman period. When Rome invaded Britain, the first thing it did, apart from bringing latinization, was to build cities. First, Rome itself is a city-state, consisting of hundreds of cities, which are the hubs connecting Rome and the centers of governance. Secondly, the town was also the military center of Rome, serving as a defense against Celtic invasions. In Roman times, British towns were mostly made of huge stones, which were indestructible and rectangular. In addition to London and other big cities, there were many small towns. It is worth noting that at this time, five British municipalities, led by Lincoln and york, had emerged, which was also the earliest urban autonomy recorded in Britain.

Then came the Anglo-Saxon conquest, and these immigrants from continental Europe didn't like to live in cities. The Saxon occupation of a Roman villa was unheard of. Everywhere they went, cities were destroyed, and only a handful of Roman road hubs, such as Cambridge and London, survived. After the Norman conquest, William I, as an outsider, made a series of measures to protect the normans in order to strengthen the rule of Britain. Such as the former county district to be transformed; To formulate new legal systems on the basis of existing laws; Strengthen the control of the church, unity of thought. But of the 1.5 million britons, only about 10,000 normans still feel fear. Military means were necessary, and in this case, massive fortifications were necessary, which, in addition to storing soldiers' provisions, supervised the surrounding areas. By the early 12th century, there were probably more than 6,000 castles built in England, of which hertfordshire and shropshire were the thickest. These castles also laid the foundation for the origins of later British cities. During this period, agricultural production was backward, military supplies were difficult, and the formation of a true sense of freedom from the land has not yet been formed. Villand was a productive activity under the supervision of knights and nobles, so the city of this period was also closely related to agriculture. In England at that time, there were five cities with 4,000 to 5,000 people, namely Lincoln, york, Oxford, Norwich and setterford. There are about 11 cities with 2,000 to 4,000 people, 14 cities with more than 1,000 people and some cities with smaller populations.

William landed at Hastings in 1066 and soon occupied London. But at this time, England was not a centralized state with a strict organization. Controlling London did not mean controlling the whole England. William faced three main threats. One is the Saxon aristocracy and the original residents of the challenge and uprising; The second is the threat from Scotland. In 1070, king Malcolm of Scotland led the army to invade England. After that, he recognized William's suzerainty in 1072, but he soon failed to fulfill his feudal obligations and rebelled four times. In this case, the castle of the royal family of England and the Norman baron, as well as the towns under their control, played a crucial role in ensuring the stability of the kingdom and the security of the territory in the early Norman conquest. The reasons for urban development are more economic, and the formation of a unified city undoubtedly plays a very important role in urban development.

Although the Norman conquest brought bloodshed, it also brought advanced production tools and labor. In this case, the economy of the manor estate was greatly developed, iron farming tools were widely used, and the output of agricultural products was greatly improved. Traditional wool industry also got bigger development. Some nobles also sold wool directly. In 1165, and mahler Sir William once and merchant prince William ? carter signed the contract, a large amount of the sale of its production of wool in the Yorkshire territory. Medieval cities were both vassals of the king in nature, and the development of urban economy must directly lead to the increase of the king's income. Therefore, in this respect, no matter the intensive production inside or the trade with the outside, the royal family would undoubtedly support them. During the Norman dynasty, three large markets appeared: st. giles market in Winchester, st. ives market in tinton county and st. bartholomew market in smithfield.

Industry agglomeration will inevitably require the emergence of industry management institutions. The emergence of medieval guilds was accompanied by the slow development of cities. The earliest guild was merchant guild, which was composed of citizens engaged in industry and commerce in the city. The emergence of merchant guild was one of the important manifestations of the improvement of citizens' economic status. As early as 1087-1107, the charter granted to beaufort already mentioned merchant guilds, which is the earliest known British historical document related to merchant guilds. In addition to economic and political reasons for the emergence of guild, there are many objective requirements of reality. After the Norman conquest, although many towns appeared, William's original intention was limited to political and military considerations, and the economic function of cities was weak. The unification of the country greatly promoted the prosperity of the economy, but England, supported by the plantation economy, had no way to separate itself from agriculture. Even city dwellers often have their own land around the town. The improvement of productivity led to the emergence of surplus products, and the direct producers acted as the owners of commodities, thus simultaneously serving as merchants. Therefore, the earliest lists of merchants' guild often recorded the names of agricultural producers and handicraftsmen. To the producer that has surplus product just now, that monopolizes the market to a certain extent. Monopoly comes partly from the combination of the same industry or different industries in the city, and on the other hand from the "charter". The Oxford charter expressly states that "members of a non-merchant guild shall not engage in commercial activities in the city or its suburbs." During this period, trade between regions was still weak. In addition to being affected by the level of economic development, heavy taxes were also one of the important reasons. Everywhere the Lord set up the road card, the merchant fraud extortion, make it miserable. In order to change this, some of the more powerful merchants and guilds would pay a sum of money to the king to apply for exemption from the tolls.

The turmoil of Stephen's time was undoubtedly a disaster for the city and the citizen class, as well as the newly formed market order. In this period, the nobles and nobles supported and respected themselves, and fought against each other. The succession of Henry ii brought light to the rebirth of England. Henry ii was a young man of great vigor, extraordinary appearance and outstanding talent. He was not only the king of England, but also the king of Normandy, anjou and aquitan. He was one of the three most powerful men in Europe at the same time. Henry ii took a series of measures to strengthen the central government. For example, the castles built by the nobles were demolished, and the nobles who were related by blood assisted the government. Henry ii's reform involved political, military, judicial, legislative and other aspects, of which judicial and military reform had the most far-reaching impact on the class of citizens and was most conducive to protecting their economic rights and interests. In the administration of justice, Henry ii declared to the nation that free men who paid a fee could transfer their cases from the lords' courts to the royal courts. Henry ii's original intention was to recover the judicial power of the aristocracy and increase the judicial income of the royal family. It seemed that the judicial payment was transferred from the aristocracy to the royal family, but in fact it reduced the citizens' judicial fraud and fines imposed by the feudal lords. On the military side, Henry ii began to promote the employment system and tax instead of military service system. Since then, the social attributes and economic interests of knights have gradually been close to the urban common people, and began to transform to the emerging bourgeoisie.

The development of urban economy makes the city become one of the important sources of the king's tax revenue, but the citizen class is still in the stage of formation and development, and its political influence on the country is far less important than that of the economy. Most cities are under the leadership of the king, so the citizens are always in the order of feudal rule. Nevertheless, the improvement of economic status will inevitably lead to citizens' active participation in the governance of the city.

Citizens initially sought to participate in politics mainly to protect economic interests. In this period, the urban power was not strong enough and was often exploited and oppressed by the feudal aristocracy. It was in the interests of the citizens to seek political asylum of the royal power. The city often gave the royal power a large amount of financial support to gain the right of "political alliance" with the king. For example, during Stephen's "turmoil", londoners appealed the illegal ACTS of the nobles to the royal court to avoid extortion. The citizens of north Yorkshire, for example, in order to avoid the threat of Scotland and the earl of Chester, offered huge financial support to obtain the royal asylum. At this time, few citizens entered government offices, even large businessmen from the upper class. Henry ii's reform provided certain convenience for the improvement of the political status of the civil class. In order to limit the great aristocracy, Henry would choose some big businessmen with prestige and economic strength to enter the government or serve as archbishop. For example, beckett was born into a family of big businessmen and his father was a businessman in Normandy.

After the Norman conquest, the unified Norman dynasty did not need to strive for the citizen class to balance the aristocracy, so the prominent role of the citizen in politics would be realized more often in times of turmoil. For example, when Henry I first came to power, faced with domestic turmoil, he began to pay attention to the struggle for the civil class to prevent it from falling to the side of the rebellious aristocracy. In times of turmoil, the citizen class seems to play the role of "gainer", dissociating itself from the royal power and aristocracy by supporting one side in exchange for its own political and economic interests. Although it was still popular in British society at this time that "my vassal's vassal was still my vassal", the attachment of the city to the king was obviously weakened. As citizens gain economic power, they often take steps to gain some political rights. For example, under the encouragement of the upper class of citizens, the stronger cities control the urban market by purchasing the contract tax revenue, thus electing city hall and municipal officials and establishing municipal courts. At the beginning of the 12th century, London enjoyed the most privileges among British cities at that time. Henry I issued an order exempting londoners from Danish gold, judicial fines and continental tolls, while giving them some degree of "autonomy". Even in peacetime, the civil class enjoyed the legal status of a free man and was protected by the common law.

In the early middle ages, the urban and civil classes in Britain were in a link of feudal society. However, this does not affect our positive evaluation of it: the formation of the common law, the enhancement of democratic consciousness, the emergence and development of parliament... It reflects the role of the city and citizens all the time. Therefore, the study of citizens is far from over, and it is also one-sided to limit its influence to the middle ages.

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